Where can I travel without a vaccine? How Europe entry requirements make holidays tricky for unvaccinated

Travelling to europe is easier and cheaper if you are vaccinated but unvaccinated travellers can still get into 22 countries in europe quarantine-free.

Caucasian women planning trip with map on wooden table

If you want to travel the world freely, then being fully vaccinated and boosted is the key to ensuring that you can holiday overseas as borders continue to reopen.

However, a careful counting of Covid border restrictions by i reveals that while favourites such as Spain , France and Italy are off limits, the majority of countries in Europe will allow unvaccinated UK visitors in for a quarantine-free holiday.

In total, 22 out of 44 countries in Europe – including Greece , Croatia, Cyprus and Portugal – allow quarantine-free travel for un-jabbed travellers from Britain.

This is particularly good news for families with children who are yet to receive their second jab, due to the UK’s delayed vaccine rollout to 12- to 15-year-olds .

In most cases, unvaccinated travellers will pay more for their holiday due to the extra cost of tests which vaccinated travellers are exempt from taking. This can also mean running the risk of a cancelled holiday if a test comes back positive.

Unvaccinated travellers must fork out extra for more tests than the vaccinated everywhere but Cyprus, where travellers to test regardless of vaccination status, and Lithuania and Iceland, where recent infection rather than testing is required in lieu of vaccination.

In 11 out of 22 countries, unvaccinated travellers can save themselves both the cost and the hassle of testing if they can provide proof of a recent Covid infection.

In three of the countries that will let in unvaccinated travellers – Lithuania, Iceland and Austria – the un-jabbed will only get in with proof of a recent infection.

It is also important to note that unvaccinated travellers will likely find it all but impossible to purchase travel insurance. Most policies will not cover travellers if they have not taken all Covid vaccination doses recommended by the UK health authorities.

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While domestic Covid pass rules relating to public places might also restrict an unvaccinated person’s movement once they are at their destination. This could mean holidaymakers having to test regularly or face being barred from public places such as restaurants.

Below, we have listed every country in Europe that will welcome unvaccinated visitors from the UK, quarantine free.

In each case, some form of extra documentation – whether proof of recent infection or proof of a negative test result – is required by countries in lieu of proof of vaccination. There is not a single country in Europe that will let in UK visitors without some sort of Covid documentation.

We have ordered all 22 countries by the type of proof that is mandated at the border. We have also listed how much extra unvaccinated travellers will have to pay to visit each destination, when compared to vaccinated travellers. We have assumed that PCR tests cost £50, antigen test cost £25 and supervised antigen test cost £35. This does not include any possible extra testing costs related to domestic Covid pass rules for accessing public places.

Unvaccinated can enter but only with proof of recent infection

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Evidence of prior Covid infection within the last six months.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? No.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of recovery from Covid.

Unvaccinated can enter with proof of recent infection or antigen test

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry, or a rapid antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before entry, or evidence of prior Covid infection within the past 90 days.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Maybe. It costs around £25 for an extra antigen test for those who cannot provide evidence of prior Covid infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival, a negative rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours of arrival or proof of recovery from Covid in the last 180 days.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry, or a rapid antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before entry, or evidence of prior Covid infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry, or a rapid antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before entry, or proof of recent recovery within last six months.

Extra testing fees for the unvaccinated? Maybe. It costs around £25 for an extra antigen test for those who cannot provide evidence of prior Covid infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: A negative antigen not older than 48 hours, or a negative PCR not older than 72 hours or proof of recent infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of recovery or PCR test no older than 48 hours from time when swab was taken or rapid antigen test no older than 24 hours from the time when the swab was taken.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry, or a rapid antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before entry, or evidence of prior Covid infection within the last six months.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? It costs around £25 for an extra antigen test for those who cannot provide evidence of prior Covid infection.

Unvaccinated can enter with proof of recent infection or a PCR test

Entry requirements costs unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry or proof of recent recovery within last six months.

Extra testing fees for the unvaccinated? Maybe. £50 for extra PCR test for those who cannot provide proof of recent infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of recovery in the past six months or a negative PCR test taken within the past 48 hours.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Maybe. £50 for extra PCR test for those who cannot provide proof of recent infection.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 48 hours before entry or evidence of prior Covid infection within the past 90 days.

North Macedonia

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: A negative PCR test made in the 72 hours before entering the country, or a certificate of recovery from Covid in the last 45 days, counting from the day of recovery.

Unvaccinated can enter with an antigen test

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival, a negative rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours of arrival by a professional.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Yes. £35 for extra supervised antigen test for those who cannot provide evidence of prior Covid infection.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of a negative Covid-19 test taken less than 24 hours before arrival.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Yes. £25 for extra antigen test.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of negative PCR taken no more than 72 hours before entry, or a rapid antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before entry.

Extra testing fees for the unvaccinated? Yes. £25 for a pre-departure antigen test.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Negative PCR test result taken within 72 hours before departure or a rapid antigen test taken within 24 hours before departure.

Extra testing fees for the unvaccinated? No. £0. The requirement for Covid testing before and after your arrival in Cyprus applies regardless of vaccination status.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of a negative PCR test undertaken within the 72 hour period before arrival or proof of a negative rapid antigen test undertaken within the 24 hour period before arrival into Greece.

Extra testing fees for the unvaccinated: Yes. £25 for a pre-departure antigen test.

Entry requirements costs unvaccinated: PCR test taken 72 hours before arrival or an antigen test taken 48 hours before arrival.

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Yes. £25 for a pre-departure antigen test.

Unvaccinated can enter with PCR test

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of a negative PCR test (taken no more than 72 hours before entry).

Extra testing costs for the unvaccinated? Yes. £50 for extra PCR test.

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: A negative PCR test conducted in the previous 72 hours of arrival.

Unvaccinated can enter with a PCR test and proof of recent infection

Entry requirements for unvaccinated: Proof of recovery in the past 180 days and a negative PCR test taken within the past 72 hours.

Do you have a question about travel? Email us: [email protected]

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Popular European Destinations That Unvaccinated People Can and Can't Travel To

Europe is home to several popular destinations for American travelers, including the United Kingdom, France and Italy.

While most European countries allow vaccinated U.S. citizens to enter, each country has its own entry requirements and there often additional restrictions for travelers who have not been fully vaccinated.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that you do not travel internationally until you have been fully vaccinated. The agency has ranked every country based on their level of COVID-19 risk, ranging from Level 1 (Low) to Level 4 (Very High.)

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Below are the main requirements for unvaccinated U.S. citizens who wish to travel to popular European destinations for non-essential reasons. All of the countries below are classified as Level 3 or Level 4 for COVID-19 risk by the CDC .

The agency recommends that unvaccinated travelers avoid non-essential travel to Level 3 destinations. For Level 4 countries, the CDC says people should avoid all travel to these destinations. If you must travel to a Level 4 country, make sure you are fully vaccinated beforehand.

Austria (Level 4: Very high)

Unvaccinated U.S. citizens are permitted to enter Austria although they are required to pre-register, present a negative COVID-19 test on arrival and remain in mandatory quarantine for 10 days at a hotel or residence at the visitor's expense. This quarantine can be ended after five days with a negative PCR test. Austria prohibits travel from certain high-risk countries.

For more information, click here .

Italy (Level 3: High)

U.S. citizens can travel to Italy for non-essential purposes until at least December 15, 2021, if they present a negative PCR or antigen test result carried out within 72 hours of arrival and either proof of vaccination or a certificate confirming recovery from COVID-19 no more than six months before departure. Travelers from the U.S. who are unable to present a valid proof of vaccination or recovery will have to self-isolate on arrival for five days and take a PCR or antigen test at the end of this period. Children under six years of age are exempt from pre-departure COVID-19 testing and quarantine requirements.

Ireland (Level 4: Very High)

U.S. citizens are permitted to enter Ireland but you will be asked to show valid proof of vaccination or that you have recovered from COVID-19 in the past 180 days. If you do not have proof of vaccination or recovery, you will need to present evidence of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to arrival in the country. Visitors must also fill in a COVID-19 Passenger Locator Form.   Unvaccinated U.S. travelers to the country must self-quarantine for 14, although this can be shortened to five days following a negative PCR test.

France (Level 3: High)

France has placed the United States on its "Orange" list. This means fully vaccinated travelers only need proof of vaccination to enter. No testing or quarantine is necessary for these people. Unvaccinated or partially vaccinated travelers, however, must provide a "compelling reason" for travel and either a negative PCR test performed in the 72 hours before departure or an antigen test performed in the 48 hours before departure. These travelers will be tested again upon arrival, and must self-isolate upon arrival for seven days, or 10 days if they test positive upon arrival. At the end of the seven days they must take a PCR test. Children under the age of 12 are exempt from the testing requirements.

Germany (Level 3: High)

Germany lifted most travel restrictions for U.S. citizens on November 14. Proof of full vaccination is no longer required. Unvaccinated travelers simply need to show proof of a negative COVID-19 test or evidence that they have recovered from COVID-19 recently. The test can either be a PCR taken within the last 72 hours before arrival in Germany, or an antigen test taken within the prior 24 hours. Children under 12 are exempt from this requirement.

Greece (Level 4: Very High)

American travelers can enter Greece without being fully vaccinated but they must present a negative PCR test performed up to 72 hours before entry, or a negative antigen test taken 48 hours before entry. Children under 12 are exempt from these requirements. Visitors who have documentation showing that they have recovered from COVD-19 in the previous one to six months are also permitted to enter the country. Random health screenings may be administered at the airport. Travelers must fill out a passenger locator form.

For more information, click her e.

The Netherlands (Level 4: Very High)

The Netherlands is currently only permitting vaccinated travelers to enter the country for non-essential reasons. Visitors must complete a health form.

Spain (Level 3: High)

Only vaccinated U.S. citizens can enter Spain for non-essential purposes at this time. These travelers must fill out a health form in order to enter.

Switzerland (Level 4: Very High)

Only fully vaccinated U.S. citizens are allowed to enter Switzerland for tourism purposes, as long as they fill out a health form before they cross the border.

United Kingdom (Level 4: Very High)

U.S. citizens who are not fully vaccinated can travel to the United Kingdom, but they must book and pay for a travel package that includes two tests to be taken during a mandatory 10-day quarantine. One on or before day 2, and the other on or after day 8. In England, travelers can take an additional test via a private provider on day five that can release them from quarantine, but the day eight test must still be taken. You will not be able to travel to the United Kingdom from a "Red List" country unless you have residence rights in the U.K.

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The countries you can travel to without a vaccine

By Abigail Malbon

The 28 most popular countries you can travel to without a vaccine

Travel around the world is easier now, particularly for those who are fully vaccinated with an approved Covid vaccine – but some countries are allowing unvaccinated travellers to enter. Yet with restrictions constantly changing, how do the latest rules affect those who aren't fully vaccinated, and which countries are allowing tourists to enter if they're unvaccinated?

Where can I travel unvaccinated?

There are currently a number of countries that will allow visitors who have not been vaccinated to enter. A few of them are in Europe , and the others are slightly farther afield. We recommend always closely following UK health guidance, including having your Covid vaccine and booster if you are able to. Before travelling, you should regularly check government guidelines both for the country you might be considering visiting and for the UK when you return.

You can find the full list of countries allowing people to enter without a vaccine below:

Since 1 May 2022, unvaccinated travellers are able to visit the country without proof of a negative PCR or rapid antigen test. Passenger locator forms are also no longer required.

Arrivals may, however, be required to undergo a rapid Covid test on arrival. If you test positive on arrival in Greece, you (and those you are travelling with) will have to self-isolate for at least five days, either at home or in a hotel (this will be paid for by the Greek state). If you have no symptoms on day five you will be allowed to leave quarantine.

For holiday inspiration, see our guide to the best Greek Islands to visit .

Read the rules on travel to Greece .

2. Portugal and Madeira

Portugal ’s mainland and Madeira are open to travellers who have not been vaccinated, as long as they can prove they don't have coronavirus when they enter the country. To enter mainland Portugal, you will be required to show proof of a negative PCR test taken within 72 or an antigen test taken within 24 hours of departure for the country as well as complete and submit a traveller questionnaire before departure for the country. Self-administered tests are not accepted. Your temperature will also be screened on arrival.

To enter Madeira, you must register on the Madeira Safe travellers platform and download a QR code to present to airport staff on arrival. You must provide proof of a negative antigen test taken within 48 hours of departure that has been administered by a trained healthcare professional.

Your airline may deny boarding if you cannot show one of these documents when you check in for your flight. Check with your airline before you travel.

Read the rules on travel to Portugal .

A blue mind

Unvaccinated adult travellers can enter Spain if they are able to show proof of a negative test taken before entering the country. Previously, only fully vaccinated travellers aged 12 and over could enter Spain from the UK, but the destination has relaxed rules slightly, so it is now accepting negative PCR tests taken in the 72 hours before departure for the country or negative antigen tests taken in the 24 hours before departure for the country in lieu of full vaccination in adults. However, those who cannot meet either criteria will not be able to enter.

As of 1 February, you need to have received your second jab between 14 and 270 days before travel to Spain and the Canary Islands to be classed as fully vaccinated. Children aged 12-17 no longer need to show proof of a vaccine, but will need a negative PCR test to enter.

Read the rules on travel to Spain .

Unvaccinated travellers can enter Croatia without showing proof of a vaccine or negative test. The requirement to fill out a passenger locator form also no longer exists.

Read the rules on travel to Croatia .

Unvaccinated travellers to  Cyprus  must provide proof of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours before departure for the country or an antigen test taken in the 24 hours before departure for the country. Travellers over 12 may then be asked to take another PCR test upon arrival at Larnaca or Paphos airports, and remain in isolation until the result comes back (this should take roughly three hours). This costs €15–€19 and must be paid for by the traveller.

Read the rules on travel to Cyprus .

If you are unvaccinated and over 12 years old, you must provide a negative PCR test result taken within 72 hours or an antigen test result taken within 48 hours pre-departure for entry to France.

Read the rules on travel to France .

7. Maldives

All travellers to the Maldives must fill in a Traveller Declaration form in the 72 hours prior to departure. A PCR test is no longer required regardless of vaccination status.

Read the rules on travel to the Maldives .

Unvaccinated tourists entering Italy from the UK must show a negative PCR test taken within 48 hours before entering, or a negative lateral flow test taken within 48 hours before entering. The requirement to fill in a passenger locator form has now been lifted.

Read the rules on travel to Italy .

9. Dubai and United Arab Emirates

You do not have to be fully vaccinated to visit the UAE. Unvaccinated arrivals to the Emirates must present evidence of a negative PCR test taken 48 hours before departure. Unvaccinated travellers from the UK to Dubai may be required to have a Covid-19 PCR test on arrival.

Read the rules on travel to Dubai .

10. Slovenia

Unvaccinated British travellers to Slovenia must provide a Digital Passenger Locator Form, but are not required to show proof of a negative test or vaccination to enter.

You do not need to be fully vaccinated to visit Turkey, but you must be able to show proof of a negative PCR test (taken no more than 72 hours before entry), rapid antigen test (taken no more than 48 hours before entry), or proof of a recent recovery from Covid-19 within the last six months. Arrivals into the country should also show an online form completed 72 hours before travel and will be subject to a medical evaluation for symptoms of coronavirus, including temperature checks. Arrivals may be subject to random PCR testing on arrival.

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You must wear a face mask at all times while in an airport and for the duration of all flights, to and from Turkey.

Read the rules on travel to Turkey .

Mexico  does not currently require visitors to show a negative PCR test or quarantine on arrival. Resorts are also able to request guests fill in a health questionnaire on arrival.

Read the rules on travel to Mexico .

13. Ireland

If you are travelling to Ireland as of Sunday 6 March 2022, you do not need to show any proof of vaccination, proof of recovery, negative test or passenger locator form.

Read the rules on travel to Ireland .

As of Friday 1 April 2022, UK travellers visiting Sweden are no longer required to present a negative Covid-19 test or proof of vaccination.

15. Seychelles

Travellers are able to enter Seychelles regardless of vaccination status, but must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to departure for the country or a rapid antigen test done within 24 hours. There is no requirement to quarantine on arrival, but travellers must stay in approved accommodation.

16. Bahamas

Unvaccinated travellers aged 12 and over must show a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours prior to the date of arrival to The Bahamas. All visitors of any age must submit a Bahamas Travel Health Visa Trip application. Seventeen-year-olds and under must be included in a parent or guardian’s profile.

All travellers to Egypt must complete a declaration form before entering the country. Unvaccinated travellers are required to show either a negative PCR test, taken no more than 72 hours before arrival in Egypt, or a rapid antigen test. Proof of Covid-19 recovery will not be accepted.

18. Cape Verde

You do not need to be fully vaccinated to enter Cape Verde, but you do need to be able to prove that you don't have Covid, either with a negative PCR test taken 72 hours before departure for the country or a lateral flow test taken 48 hours, when you check-in for your flight to Cape Verde.

19. Iceland

On 25 February 2022 all Covid restrictions were removed, including domestic rules. This means you do not need to test or show proof of vaccination status to enter the country.

20. Luxembourg

All travellers to Luxembourg need to fill in a passenger locator form before their flight. Those who are not vaccinated need to show proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 48 hours before their flight, or a negative lateral flow test taken no more than 24 hours before. If you’re not fully vaccinated but have tested positive for Covid in the last year you can show proof of recovery to enter.

The travel restrictions upon entry into Norway have been lifted, which means that the same rules as before the pandemic now apply.

Read the rules on travel to Norway .

22. Sri Lanka

Covid travel insurance is mandatory for all visitors, and unvaccinated travellers need to show proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours before their flight, or a negative lateral flow test taken no more than 48 hours before – be aware that self-swab tests are not recognised.

23. South Africa

Travellers to South Africa must present proof of a negative PCR test taken no more than 72 hours before departure for the country. You may be screened on arrival.

Read the rules on travel to South Africa .

Unvaccinated travellers to Belize must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours before arrival, or a negative antigen test taken in the 48 hours before arrival. You may also opt to take a rapid test at the airport, at a cost of BZ$100 or US$50 (which must be paid in cash). If you test positive, you will be required to quarantine at your own cost. Foreign tourists are required to pay BZ$36 (US$18) for Belize Travel Health Insurance – this is mandatory even if you already have personal travel insurance and helps protect against incurred medical and non-medical expenses should you test positive for Covid during your stay in Belize.

There are no direct flights from the UK to Belize, so it's important to check the rules of the country you will be transiting through too.

25. Costa Rica

Since 1 April 2022 there have been no requirements for entry to Costa Rica in regards to coronavirus. However, the government acknowledges that these may be brought back at short notice, in which case travellers should always check guidance before their trip.

Since 6 April 2022, there have been no requirements for travellers from the UK to show either a Covid vaccination or Covid test when entering Cuba. However, random testing is still being carried out at airports, and anyone who tests positive will be moved to quarantine in a designated government health centre, at their own expense.

27. Denmark

There are no Covid-related requirements regarding test or self-isolation when entering Denmark.

Read the rules on travel to Denmark .

You do not need to show proof of vaccination to enter Monaco, however travellers over the age of 16 who are not fully vaccinated will need to provide either a negative result of a PCR or antigen test taken within the last 24 hours, or a certificate showing proof of recovery from Covid-19 (a positive PCR or antigen test, taken more than 11 days before arrival and within the last six months).

Do I have to quarantine when returning to the UK?

No. On 18 March 2022 all Covid travel rules within the UK were removed – which means that travellers do not need to test, quarantine or even fill in a passenger locator form , regardless of their vaccination status, upon return to the country.

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Table of Contents

What do Americans need to enter Europe?

European countries with no covid restrictions, do you need to be vaccinated to enter europe, can unvaccinated people travel to europe, americans returning to the u.s. from europe, are you nervous about travel plans going awry, if you’re planning to travel to europe.

The landscape of travel changed forever when COVID-19 entered the scene. Now, years later, we’re still dealing with the ongoing effects of the pandemic. Along with travel restrictions and ever-evolving entry requirements, travelers have to plan for plenty of unexpected changes.

Nowhere is this more evident than Europe, where individual countries have spent the last few years creating their own responses to the pandemic. This begs the question: Can Americans travel to Europe? Happily, all of these countries have reopened to tourism. Let’s take a look.

U.S. citizens can generally enter most European countries for business or tourism without a visa. If traveling within the Schengen zone, which comprises 26 countries, Americans can stay for up to 90 days within any 180 day period.

For countries outside the Schengen zone , you’ll need to verify the individual entry requirements and apply for a visa, if needed.

The European Travel Information and Authorisation System, or ETIAS , which will pre-screen travelers entering the EU, is not yet operational. When it is, travelers will need to complete a form and pay a fee prior to entry.

» Learn more: How to book future air travel amid coronavirus uncertainty

Many countries within Europe have completely dropped COVID entry requirements. Countries without any restrictions include:

Liechtenstein.

Luxembourg.

Switzerland.

Americans can also travel without COVID restrictions to the United Kingdom.

No. At the time of this writing, all European countries require no form of vaccination or COVID testing to gain entry.

Instead, these countries have reverted to pre-COVID entry measures, which primarily include having a valid passport with room for stamps.

» Learn more: Where can U.S. citizens travel right now?

Most countries within Europe will currently allow unvaccinated travelers to enter, though it’s always a good idea to keep your eye on entry requirements as they can change on a dime.

Depending on where you’re going, you may need to provide a negative COVID test or proof of recovery in order to enter the country. What the proof looks like can vary, so you’ll need to consult the country’s requirements to ensure you meet the regulations.

If you need to show proof of a negative COVID test, there are two different kinds that are commonly accepted for travel into the EU. You’ll want to check the individual requirements of the country to see which you can use:

A valid negative molecular test . These types of tests are generally either called a PCR or NAAT test. They often take a few days for results to arrive because they’re processed in a laboratory.

A valid negative rapid test . Accepted by fewer countries — or accepted within a tighter window than a molecular test — these antigen or TRAg rapid tests can provide results within minutes.

» Learn more: What COVID test is required for travel?

Since June 12, 2022, those traveling by air no longer need to provide a negative COVID test in order to enter the United States.

» Learn more: How Global Entry works

Purchasing a standalone travel insurance policy can improve the likelihood of getting your money back on upfront travel expenses, such as for flights, hotels or activities, like tours.

Shop for options based on our most recent analysis, the Best Travel Insurance Companies Today .

» Learn more: What to know before buying travel insurance

Much of Europe is open to Americans, including more than two dozen countries without any COVID restrictions at all. However, it’s important to double-check before traveling in case requirements change.

If you’re vaccinated, most countries are open to you as long as you can show proof of vaccination. You’ll want to be sure that you meet the definition for “fully vaccinated” — if enough time has passed since you received the jab, you may need a booster to fulfill these requirements.

Unvaccinated travelers, meanwhile, can still enter most countries with COVID restrictions provided they have a valid negative COVID test on hand.

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$300 Earn an additional 1.5% cash back on everything you buy (on up to $20,000 spent in the first year) - worth up to $300 cash back!

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2x-5x Earn unlimited 2X miles on every purchase, every day. Earn 5X miles on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One Travel, where you'll get Capital One's best prices on thousands of trip options.

75,000 Enjoy a one-time bonus of 75,000 miles once you spend $4,000 on purchases within 3 months from account opening, equal to $750 in travel.

europe travel for unvaccinated

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Where can I travel without a vaccine?

europe travel for unvaccinated

Friday February 3 2023, 09:00am

The travel landscape couldn’t look more different in 2023 compared to three years ago when borders were beginning to shut. Many countries have since relaxed their Covid-related travel restrictions, dropping the requirements for pre-departure testing and quarantine on arrival. But not everywhere has returned to normal — some countries still continue to ban travellers who aren’t fully vaccinated, including the USA. Fortunately there are lots of alternative destinations that welcome visitors regardless. Here are the countries that don’t require Covid vaccinations for travel.

Main photo: Oia village in Santorini (Getty Images)

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If you are not fully vaccinated, you still have plenty of options when it comes to holiday destinations. However, you may in some cases need to take a Covid test before travel and/or on arrival. A period of quarantine — either in an accommodation of your choice or at a government facility — may also be mandatory. Some destinations will allow you to get around these extra requirements by showing proof of recent recovery from Covid, or a medical exemption from getting vaccinated. 

It’s always worth checking before you travel as restrictions between different countries can vary significantly.

Traveller on airplane wearing mask due to Covid-19

Which countries allow unvaccinated travellers? 

The countries and territories below are open to unvaccinated travellers from the UK for tourism purposes, without the need to quarantine. You don’t need to be a resident or citizen, or have recently recovered from Covid. You may however need to show negative results from a recent Covid test.

These restrictions can change at any time so do double check before you travel and ensure you have comprehensive travel insurance .

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Aruba 

The harbour in Belize City, perfect for an unvaccinated holiday

  • Bonaire/St Eustatius/Saba
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Côte d’Ivoire
  • Croatia  
  • Cuba  
  • Cyprus  
  • Czech Republic
  • El Salvador  
  • Falkland Islands
  • French Guiana
  • French Polynesia
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast

You don't need to have a Covid vaccine to travel to Kazakhstan

  • Kenya  
  • Liechtenstein
  • Monaco  
  • Mozambique  
  • New Caledonia
  • North Macedonia
  • Oman  
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Panama  
  • Russia (FCDO warning)
  • São Tomé and Príncipe
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sierra Leone
  • Singapore (restrictions apply)
  • St Helena and Ascension (but not Tristan da Cunha)
  • St Kitts and Nevis
  • St Lucia  
  • St Martin and St Barthélemy
  • St Pierre and Miquelon
  • St Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Ukraine (FCDO warning)
  • United Arab Emirates (including Abu Dhabi and Dubai )
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • Western Sahara
  • Yemen (FCDO warning)

Zambia allows unvaccinated travellers to enter

What does fully vaccinated mean?

Fully vaccinated could mean the initial course of two jabs, or three jabs including a booster. There are a number of countries that put an expiry on the initial course of jabs, so if you were vaccinated more than 270 days (nine months) ago, you will need a booster. Check the entry requirements of your destination country for more information.

What are the travel rules for returning to the UK if I’m unvaccinated?

There are no Covid requirements for inbound travellers to the UK.

  • Can I travel to Spain? The entry requirements explained
  • Which countries have no Covid travel restrictions?
  • Where can I travel to with unvaccinated children?
  • Can I travel to Mexico? The entry requirements explained
  • Can I travel to Portugal? The entry requirements explained

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And here are the best packages from Tui holidays and BA Holidays .

europe travel for unvaccinated

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E.U. Proposes New Travel Restrictions on Unvaccinated U.S. Visitors

The door that opened in June may close for some again as E.U. officials see American coronavirus cases surge.

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europe travel for unvaccinated

By Elian Peltier

BRUSSELS — Back in June, the European Union urged its member countries to reopen their borders to travelers from the United States, hoping to give a boost to the continent’s ailing tourism sector in the crucial summer season.

It worked. American tourists flocked to the beaches of Spain and Greece, the countryside of Italy and the streets of Amsterdam and Paris.

But on Monday, the European Union proposed new travel restrictions for unvaccinated visitors from the United States, a response to the alarming surge in coronavirus cases and hospitalizations across the Atlantic.

In removing the United States from a “ safe list ” of countries whose residents can travel without requirements such as quarantine and testing, the European Council of the European Union, which represents governments of the bloc’s 27 countries, signaled that potential restrictions to curb the spread of the coronavirus may remain in place for months. The new measures could deal a fresh blow to Europe’s ailing tourism sector.

Other countries removed from the “safe list” include Israel, Kosovo, Lebanon, Montenegro and North Macedonia, most which have reported a surge of cases in the past 14 days, according to a New York Times tracker .

The suggested restrictions are not mandatory, and it remains up to each European Union member state to follow the guidelines. So it was not immediately clear which countries, if any, would reintroduce restrictions or when they might begin.

If enforced, the new restrictions would apply to unvaccinated travelers only. The European Council already recommends that all visitors who have been inoculated with an E.U.-approved vaccine be allowed to travel. That includes the three vaccines available in the United States and manufactured by Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer and Moderna, as well as AstraZeneca.

Some countries have also implemented more stringent measures than others, even for visitors from a country on the safe list, yet once visitors have entered an E.U. country, they can move across the bloc freely.

Under the current guidelines, unvaccinated travelers from countries on the European Council’s safe list can visit E.U. countries without quarantining by showing a negative test. But a minority of countries have also kept self-isolation requirements in place, including, in some cases, for vaccinated visitors.

Meanwhile, United States has remained closed to Europeans , who have expressed frustration at the lack of reciprocity.

With more than 52 percent of Americans fully vaccinated, most were able to travel to Europe without hurdles this summer and can continue to do so. Yet the decision to remove the United States from the safe list could still create confusion among American tourists, said Marie Audren, the director of HOTREC, a lobbying group that represents the hospitality industry in Europe.

“Every client at a hotel, a restaurant, a bar or a cafe was valuable to the tourism industry this summer,” Ms. Audren said. “And in recent years American tourists have become increasingly important to European countries.”

In France, Greece and Spain, U.S. visitors make up the largest contingent of tourists from non-European countries, according to data provided by tourism ministries. In others, such as Portugal, total spending by Americans is among the highest of any nationality.

Yet U.S. arrivals to Europe declined by more than 80 percent last year compared with 2019, according to the European Travel Commission, a Brussels-based group that represents national tourism organizations on the continent. While figures for this summer aren’t available yet, Ms. Audren said it would take years to return to prepandemic levels.

Luís Araújo, the president of the European Travel Commission, said, “Further unjustified changes in regulations will undoubtedly negatively affect the tourism sector, which is slowly recovering from its worst crisis.”

In Europe, the number of coronavirus cases has remained stable this month. But the United States recorded more than 100,000 daily Covid hospitalizations over the last week, a first since the winter. E.U. officials are wary that an influx of unvaccinated U.S. visitors could drive infections up in Europe.

One of the European Council’s criteria for lifting restrictions is that a country should have fewer than 75 coronavirus cases per 100,000 inhabitants over the previous 14-day period. The United States has had a reported infection rate well above that threshold for weeks, according to data provided by the European Center for Disease Control, and it is classified as a red zone by the agency — the second-most risky classification.

A European official with knowledge of confidential discussions leading up to the announcement, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to discuss the update to the list, said that it had been made based on the latest scientific data available, and that the infection numbers in the United States spoke for themselves.

Elian Peltier is a reporter in the Brussels bureau of The New York Times, covering the European Union and Belgium. More about Elian Peltier

UPDATE: Reopening Europe: Where can you go? What are the rules? A country-by-country guide

Clint Henderson

Since the European Union recommended that member states reinstate travel restrictions for unvaccinated U.S. visitors on Aug. 30, 2021 , due to rising COVID-19 cases, several European countries have issued updated guidance regarding unvaccinated travelers from the U.S.

So far, most EU countries are still allowing vaccinated travelers as they have been since this summer .

And as of mid-September 2021, out of the 47 European countries on this list, 22 are currently restricting travel to only vaccinated visitors from the U.S. (or are requiring quarantine). Keep that in mind when planning travel.

For more TPG news delivered each morning to your inbox, sign up for our daily newsletter .

While Europe has made great strides with its EU Digital COVID Certificate , giving Europeans a uniform way to provide proof of full vaccination against COVID-19, negative PCR or antigen tests and/or recovery from COVID-19, it remains inaccessible to Americans traveling in Europe. Nor has a digital equivalent been introduced yet in the States.

U.S.-based travelers may be able to convert their vaccination card issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into a digital certificate to comply with the EU's Digital COVID Certificate by visiting local pharmacies in certain countries, such as France. Some countries, including France, are requiring a digital health pass to show that one has been tested, vaccinated or has recently recovered from COVID-19. You'll find that all three CDC-authorized vaccines (Johnson & Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer) are accepted across Europe.

Related: Want to travel to Europe this summer? Here's what you need to know

One important note is that the U.S. government still requires all airline passengers coming back to the U.S. (over the age of 2) to show a negative COVID-19 viral test taken within three calendar days before departure, regardless of travel location. Alternatively, travelers may provide documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19 in the 90 days preceding travel.

Read more: Secretary of State says US borders will remain closed for EU citizens

If you want to find out where U.S. travelers can go right now, follow this link for our complete guide to which countries are allowing U.S. travelers .

In the meantime, this guide summarizes each European country's current status for international travel:

Related: Everything you need to know about transiting European airports during the pandemic

Krujë, Albania. (Photo by Westend61/Getty Images)

The Albanian government lifted all restrictions on tourism on July 1, 2020, and commercial flights have resumed, but some connections through major European hubs were reduced in December 2020.

As of Sept. 6, 2021, Albania has reimplemented testing requirements for visitors. Per the U.S. Embassy , all passengers age 6 and older arriving in Albania must show one of the following to enter:

  • A vaccination passport where the date of full vaccination is no later than two weeks from the date of entry in Albania.
  • Proof a negative PCR test within 72 hours or a rapid antigen test within 48 hours.
  • Documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19 in the six months preceding travel.

Wearing masks in all indoor public spaces remains mandatory, as well as outdoors when social distancing is not possible, for those over the age of 11. Albania has a curfew from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. until further notice and all bars, restaurants and fast-food outlets can offer delivery only during those hours.

The U.S. Embassy also notes that travelers should be prepared for travel restrictions to be put into effect with little or no advance notice.

The U.S. Department of State's travel advisory for Albania is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Armenia has reopened its borders to Americans, according to the U.S. Embassy in Armenia . All visitors are required to show proof of vaccination at least 14 days prior to arrival or a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours. Alternatively, you can take a test upon arrival and quarantine until receipt of negative test results.

As of Sept. 6, 2021, children under 6 years of age are exempt from presenting a PCR test or a vaccination certificate. Masks are required on public transit.

The U.S. State Department's travel advisory for Armenia is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Vienna, Austria September 2017. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Although Austria reopened to American citizens and residents on June 24 , a mandatory quarantine has once again been put in place for unvaccinated travelers. Otherwise, quarantine is not required, provided travelers show proof of vaccination or proof of recovery from COVID-19 in the past 180 days (from a doctor or public authority).

As of Sept. 14, 2021, Austria will only consider vaccine certificates valid for 360 days after the first or second dose of a two-dose vaccine, recovery from COVID-19 or after any additional booster shots, per the official government Austrian travel portal , which notes that one-dose vaccines (i.e., Johnson & Johnson) are valid for 270 days beginning the 22nd day following the shot. Booster shots recieved at least 120 days after both single and two-dose vaccines will be valid for an additional 360 days from the day of the booster shot.

Only certificates issued in English or German by medical authorities will be accepted.

Those who can show proof of full vaccination or recovery from COVID-19 are exempt from a mandatory 10-day quarantine, and they do not need to register for pre-travel clearance.

Unvaccinated/unrecovered travelers must show results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours or a rapid/antigen test taken within 48 hours prior to entering Austria. Additionally, this group must register online to obtain a pre-travel clearance as well as a quarantine for a minimum of five days, at which point they can test again via a PCR test to end quarantine early. Travelers age 12-18 may enter Austria without quarantine if accompanied by fully vaccinated or recovered parents but must show proof of a negative test, past infection or vaccination.

The country has adopted Germany's " 3G Rule " to require all persons over the age of 6 to show proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test to enter certain indoor establishments, including restaurants, bars, hotels and cultural facilities in Austria. A PCR test taken within 48 hours and antigen test taken within 24 hours will be considered valid.

Transiting passengers are not subject to COVID-19 entry restrictions. For details on travel restrictions, check here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Austria is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Related: Austria reopens to American travelers today: Here's what you need to know

According to the U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan , U.S. citizens were welcomed back to the country on June 21, 2021, only by air. All travelers 18 and older must have a COVID-19 passport or documentation confirming full vaccination or immunity to COVID-19.

The country is under special quarantine restrictions through Nov. 1, 2021. Restaurants, cafes and most other businesses are open and masks remain obligatory inside and on public transportation.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Azerbaijan is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Belarus has been in the middle of a popular uprising against the man called the "last dictator in Europe," but the country bordering Russia is open to tourism.

According to the U.S. Embassy in Belarus , Americans are on a list of countries that were allowed to enter as of Aug. 15, 2020, but only through Minsk National Airport (MSQ). Land borders are closed to American travelers.

U.S. passport holders traveling to Belarus via Minsk may enter visa-free for up to 30 days. A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours is required for all travelers from a "red zone" country (which includes the U.S.).

Vaccinated travelers, including those from the U.S., are exempt from an otherwise mandatory seven-day quarantine. Unvaccinated travelers are still expected to complete this quarantine.

Transiting passengers are not subject to quarantine if they depart the country within 48 hours.

Health screening procedures remain in place at airports and other entry ports.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Belarus is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Brussels, Belgium March 2015. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

According to the U.S. Embassy in Belgium, only vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are allowed to Belgium for nonessential travel at this time as the U.S. is currently a "red zone" outside of the EU.

Travelers must complete a passenger locator form at least 48 hours prior to arrival. Unvaccinated travelers who are permitted to enter must present results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of departure, as well as quarantine for at least seven days, from which they may be released upon taking a negative COVID-19 test.

Color codes by country can be found here .

All cafes, restaurants, markets, shops and non-medical contact professions, including nail and hair salons, are open. Face masks are mandatory on public transportation. For more information, check the country's " Current measures " updates.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Belgium is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina reopened to international travelers on Sept. 13, 2020, and Americans can visit. The U.S. Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina reports that the country is currently experiencing a higher number of COVID-19 cases than previously.

Travelers must provide a COVID-19 vaccination certificate showing full vaccination completed 10 days prior to arrival, a doctor's certificate of COVID-19 recovery in the period 10 to 180 days prior to arrival or a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours if coming from the U.S. or 48 hours if coming from within Europe. Masks are required on public transit. According to the U.S. Embassy, requirements and restrictions may change with little or no advance notice.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Bosnia and Herzegovina is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Sofia, Bulgaria September 2017. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

U.S. citizens are once again allowed to enter the country as of May 1, 2021, according to the U.S. Embassy in Bulgaria , but only under certain conditions as the U.S. is considered a "red zone" as of Sept. 1, 2021, meaning all arrivals from the U.S. are prohibited unless they meet an exception.

Exceptions for entry from "red" countries include the following:

  • Bulgarian citizens and those with permanent or long-term residence status in Bulgaria and their immediate family members.
  • Citizens of the EU, the European Economic Area and the Swiss Confederation and their family members arriving from those places.
  • Medical professionals, medical researchers and social workers traveling related to their duties.
  • Humanitarian workers.
  • Seasonal tourism workers.
  • Students who hold long-term "D" study visas, among others.

Exempted travelers must present one of the following:

  • Digital EU COVID-19 certificate.
  • Proof of full vaccination.
  • Results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours.

Those age 12-18 arriving from the red zone may enter the country by presenting results of a negative PCR test, certified by an EU Digital COVID Certificate.

Those who fail to present one of the above will be expected to quarantine for 10 days. Face masks are required on public transit.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Bulgaria is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Zagreb, Croatia. (Photo by Iascic/Getty Images)

U.S. travelers can once again visit Croatia — but they must have proof of accommodation paid in full in advance of arrival to qualify for tourism-specific travel, one of four approved travel categories for travelers from the U.S.

Croatia had reopened for tourists from all countries, but then on Dec. 1, 2020, the government restricted entry and border crossings and instituted varying levels of lockdown to help limit COVID-19 transmission, and as a result, entry for tourism purposes was not permitted for U.S. citizens. That changed as of April 1, 2021.

According to the U.S. Embassy in Croatia , U.S. tourists must fill out the Enter Croatia form and present one of the following:

  • A negative result of a PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or a rapid antigen test taken less than 48 hours before arrival.
  • A vaccination certificate showing vaccination was completed at least 14 days before entry to Croatia and that the final dose was completed within the past 270 days.
  • A certificate confirming recovery from a COVID-19 infection with a positive test result having been received within 12 and 270 days of arrival in Croatia.

Unvaccinated travelers can also test upon arrival (at the traveler's cost) and self-isolate until receiving a negative result. Alternatively, travelers can just self-isolate for 10 days.

All travelers from the U.S. visiting for tourism purposes must also provide proof of accommodation paid in advance in full or they will not be permitted to enter the country. The other approved categories for U.S.-based travelers are:

  • Urgent personal/family or business purposes.
  • Citizens/residents of EU/European Economic Area member states and their family members.

The U.S. Embassy also notes that entry requirements are subject to change at any time without notice and that the Croatian Border Police have final authority regarding entry into Croatia.

Related: Croatia now allowing travelers to skip testing, isolation if they're vaccinated

Croatia requires that masks be worn in indoor public spaces and outdoors when social distancing can not be maintained. Restaurants can offer food and beverages for takeout/delivery as well as indoor/outdoor dining, and masks are required.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Croatia is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Cyprus, a small island nation off the coast of Turkey, is now open to Americans arriving directly from the U.S.

According to the U.S. Embassy in Cyprus , all tourists may travel from the U.S. to the Republic of Cyprus without mandatory self-isolation.

Vaccinated travelers must upload their proof of vaccination in an approved Cyrpus Flight Pass within 48 hours of travel, showing proof of full vaccination at least 14 days past their final dose. Unvaccinated travelers must upload proof of a negative PCR test within 72 hours of boarding a flight to Cyprus and then complete another test upon arrival at their own expense (30 euros). Children under the age of 12 do not require testing.

Further details on travel requirements can be found on the Cyprus Tourism hub.

The U.S. Embassy also notes that vaccinated passengers who have a valid vaccination certificate from certain countries (including the U.S.) can travel to Cyprus from any country without having to meet the prerequisites of the country category they are traveling from. Vaccinated travelers, however, can still be selected for random COVID-19 testing on arrival.

Many venues, including indoor/outdoor restaurants, malls, churches, cinemas, etc., with 20-plus people, are restricted to locals with a valid SafePass, equivalent to the aforementioned Cyrpus Flight Pass for tourists, which shows proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test. Seating at restaurants is limited to 10 people. Face coverings are required in all public spaces for people age 12 and older.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Cyprus is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19.

Czech Republic

The Prague Christmas Market. (Photo by Frank Chmura/Getty Images)

Although the Czech Republic started welcoming U.S. citizens back on June 21, 2021, the country restricted tourism to vaccinated Americans on Aug. 20, 2021 , per the Czech Ministry of the Interior.

Vaccinated travelers from the U.S. can continue to visit the Czech Republic as tourists by presenting proof of vaccination to show at least 14 days have elapsed since their final dose. Vaccines currently accepted are AstraZeneca, Moderna, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson. A negative COVID-19 test is no longer required for vaccinated persons to enter.

Unvaccinated children between the ages of 6 and 12 may also travel with vaccinated parents but must undergo a PCR test upon arrival and quarantine until receipt of negative test results. Pre-testing requirements do not apply to this age group.

Read more: Czech Republic bans unvaccinated American tourists

According to the U.S. Embassy in the Czech Republic , COVID-19-related requirements still remain for tourists to enjoy certain activities, including staying at a hotel, eating at restaurants, visiting museums and attending public events. To do so, you must show one of the following:

  • Negative PCR test taken within the past 72 hours.
  • Negative antigen test from the past 24 hours.
  • For single-dose vaccines, such as Johnson & Johnson, proof that 14 days have elapsed after the dose within the last nine months.
  • For double-dose vaccines, such as Moderna and Pfizer, proof that 22 days have elapsed after the first dose within the last 90 days, or proof that 22 days have elapsed after the second dose within the last nine months.
  • If you have recovered from COVID-19 within six months of travel, proof of such is required.

Additionally, FFP2 or KN95 masks are required in most public spaces, including shops, airports and public transportation (including taxis and ride-sharing services) as well as when social distancing is not possible outdoors.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for the Czech Republic is Level 2: Exercise Increased Caution and the CDC's advisory is Level 2: Moderate Level of COVID-19 .

Related: Czech Republic is open to Americans, with just 1 requirement

Copenhagen October 2015. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Although Denmark welcomed back unvaccinated American travelers in July, they restricted tourism to vaccinated travelers on Sept. 3, 2021.

Fully vaccinated travelers from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries , including the U.S., have been allowed in the country since June 5, 2021.

According to the U.S. Embassy in Denmark , travelers from the U.S. can enter Denmark for any reason, if they have been vaccinated with a European Medicines Agency -approved vaccine and it has been 14 days or longer since their last vaccine shot. Fully vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are also exempt from testing and quarantine requirements upon arrival in Denmark if they provide documentation of vaccination.

Unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. may only enter Denmark for a " worthy purpose " approved by the Danish government, including work in Denmark or for education purposes. They must test upon arrival at the airport, or submit results of a negative COVID-19 test (PCR test that is no more than 72 hours old or a negative rapid/antigen test that is no more than 48 hours old).

Children under 18 who enter Denmark with a fully vaccinated parent are exempt from the requirement to have a "worthy purpose." Those under the age of 16 accompanied by a fully vaccinated parent are exempt from testing requirements. Those ages 16 and 17 traveling with a fully vaccinated parent must present a negative test before entry.

Entry rules for Denmark can be found here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Denmark is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Read more: Denmark has reopened to fully vaccinated US and UK travelers as of June 5

Tallinn, Estonia May 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of June 21, 2021, Estonia is reopened to Americans, according to the U.S. Embassy in Estonia , and quarantine-free entry is available to vaccinated travelers from the U.S. Permitted travelers who have proof of recovery from COVID-19 in the past six months can also enter without having to quarantine.

Unvaccinated travelers may also enter the country by submitting proof of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to arrival and then quarantining for six days, before taking a second negative test. Testing is also available upon arrival at air and seaports of entry.

Travelers are required to complete an online health declaration form up to 72 hours prior to arrival, with an exemption for vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19.

As of Aug. 26, 2021, COVID-19 certificates are required for individuals 18 and older at most indoor events, including restaurants, bars, cinemas and museums. A certificate must show proof of vaccination status, a negative test or evidence of having recovered. Masks are required in all public indoor spaces where COVID-19 certificates are not checked, including public transportation, shops, shopping centers, banks, post offices, etc.

A mandatory 10-day quarantine remains in place for those coming from high-risk or "red" countries, although two negative PCR tests can waive such requirement, taken upon arrival and another six days after arrival. See more information regarding the designation of countries based on infection rate here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Estonia is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Helsinki, Finland August 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of September 2021, Finland is restricted to vaccinated Americans only, per the Visit Finland tourism board.

Vaccinated travelers from all countries, including the U.S., can enter Finland as long as they have been fully vaccinated for at least 14 days prior to entry with an EMA/WHO-authorized vaccine. Acceptable vaccination certificates include the EU Digital COVID Certificate as well as those written in English, Finnish or Swedish.

The Finnish Border Guard provides guidelines for border traffic during the pandemic and currently prohibits unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. unless they have an essential reason for travel approved by the Finnish government, through at least Sept. 19, 2021. Approved unvaccinated travelers must submit results of a negative COVID-19 test or proof of recent recovery. Alternatively, they can take two tests upon arrival. See more information from the Finnish institute for health and welfare here .

Consult the U.S. Embassy in Finland for further updates.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Finland in Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Paris, France 2015. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of Sept. 10, 2021 , France has restricted tourism to vaccinated Americans only due to the redesignation of the U.S. as an "orange" country, requiring unvaccinated U.S. travelers to present an "essential" reason for travel, per the French Ministry of Affairs .

Those unvaccinated travelers who are approved due to a pressing reason must provide a negative PCR or antigen test taken within 72 or 48 hours of boarding your flight, respectively, and submit to a mandatory seven-day self-isolation, followed by an additional PCR test.

Fully vaccinated travelers coming from the U.S. and those under the age of 17 accompanied by a fully vaccinated parent or guardian will still be able to enter France with proof of vaccination and a sworn statement they do not have symptoms of COVID-19 nor contact with someone with a confirmed case of COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in France. Testing requirements are no longer in place for vaccinated visitors.

Only the AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are accepted for vaccinated individuals.

Related: Americans can now officially apply for France's digital health pass

As of Aug. 1, 2021, a digital health pass is required for visitors to partake in certain activities, including public transit, eating at cafes and restaurants and shopping. Those who are not fully vaccinated or who are awaiting a French health pass can obtain a temporary, 72-hour pass by taking a negative antigen or PCR test on the ground in France. The CDC card is currently being accepted as proof of vaccination but does not suffice for the digital health pass.

Masks are required in public spaces. Details on additional restrictions are available here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for France is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Related: My experience getting a COVID-19 test in France

Americans are permitted to enter the country of Georgia freely by air, according to the U.S. Embassy in Georgia , and without quarantine.

For vaccinated travelers arriving by air or sea, you may be unconditionally admitted upon showing a COVID-19 vaccine certificate. For unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. and other countries that can be found here , you must:

  • Arrive by air, directly from a listed country.
  • Present a negative PCR test result conducted 72 hours or less before arrival in Georgia.

In addition to the above, unvaccinated travelers must also get a follow-up PCR test at your own expense on the third day after arrival in Georgia.

Unvaccinated travelers should complete an application form prior to arrival with contact details and travel history. Travelers under the age of 10 are exempt from the obligation to provide a negative PCR test result conducted 72 hours or less before arrival in Georgia, and from the obligation to get a follow-up PCR test on the third day after arrival in Georgia.

The embassy also notes that travelers from Georgia are not able to transit specific countries en route back to the U.S., specifically Germany, France, Austria, the Netherlands and Poland.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Georgia is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Berlin August 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Only fully vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are allowed into Germany as of Aug. 1, 2021, per the German Missions in the U.S . Individuals are considered fully vaccinated 14 days after receiving their last vaccine dose as well as those who can prove recovery from COVID-19 within the past six months.

Unvaccinated visitors will only be permitted entry if they can "demonstrate an important reason" for entering the country as well as provide a negative COVID-19 test (taken within 72 hours for a PCR test or 38 hours for an antigen test), per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in Germany .

All travelers, regardless of vaccination status, must complete a digital registration form and everyone over the age of 12 must bring proof of vaccination.

Read more: Germany requiring vaccination for American visitors and at certain indoor spaces

Upon approval from the German government, unvaccinated travelers coming from high-risk areas, like the U.S., must quarantine for 10 days, per the U.S. Embassy. Vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months are exempt.

The quarantine can be cut short by submitting a negative COVID-19 test on day five of being in Germany. Those under 12 can end quarantine automatically at the same time without a test.

All travelers coming from a "virus-variant area" are subject to a 14-day quarantine, vaccination status notwithstanding. There is no possibility of ending quarantine early, per the embassy.

The Robert Koch Institute maintains a list of high-risk areas listed here . More information on additional requirements for travelers coming from designated risk countries can be found here . Medical-grade masks are required on public transit.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Germany is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Read more: I was one of the first American tourists to enter Germany: Here's what it was like

Athens May 2018. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Americans are able to travel to Greece rather seamlessly via a quick digital form and proof of either vaccination or a negative PCR test.

Per the U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Greece , the country is restricted to third-country nationals (including U.S. citizens) who are also EU citizens/permanent residents or are residing permanently in specific countries.

Read more: On the ground: What it's like visiting Greece right now

Regardless, all passengers looking to enter Greece must complete a passenger locator form at least 24 hours before their arrival in Greece, which will generate a QR code via email. Additionally, the Greek government requires passengers over the age of 12 to provide one of the following:

  • Negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival.
  • Proof of a negative COVID-19 rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours of arrival.
  • Proof of a COVID-19 vaccination completed at least 14 days before travel, including Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson.
  • A certificate of recovery from COVID-19 issued by a public authority or a certified laboratory.
  • Proof that the traveler tested positive with COVID-19 in the past two to nine months, either through a positive PCR or an antigen test, or a medical certificate verifying that the holder had tested positive for COVID-19.

As of Sept. 2, 2021, masks are still required indoors. Public indoor spaces, including restaurants and cafes, and all spaces of nightclubs and bars, are only accessible to those who can show proof of vaccination or recent recovery from COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy.

Related: 8 reasons my first trip to Greece was better than I expected

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Greece is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Budapest, Hungary, October 2014. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of Aug. 8, 2021, U.S. citizens may enter Hungary by air by submitting a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours, per the U.S. Embassy in Hungary .

Test results may be in Hungarian or English. Currently, travelers are free to enter Hungary by road, rail or waterway, regardless of origin point. U.S. citizens are not required to quarantine at this time.

Entry into hotels, stores, restaurants, baths and waterparks is possible without proof of immunity or vaccination for COVID-19, but such is still required to attend large gatherings, such as sporting events or music festivals, per the Hungarian government .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Hungary is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 1: Low Level of COVID-19 .

Read more: COVID-19 vaccine required: A country-by-country guide to where you can only go while vaccinated

Blue Lagoon Iceland

Iceland is once again welcoming U.S. travelers — but only if they've completed their COVID-19 vaccination or can present proof of a previous infection via a positive antibody test, per the U.S. Embassy in Iceland .

As of July 1, 2021, there is no longer a requirement for arrival testing for passengers vaccinated against COVID-19, but all travelers, regardless of vaccinations status, must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival. Additionally, unvaccinated persons must submit to a test upon arrival, followed by a five-day quarantine and two additional PCR tests. Those who have recently recovered from COVID-19 must also present a negative test.

Travelers born in 2005 or later will continue to be exempted from all border measures, according to the Embassy.

Related: Travel to Iceland during the coronavirus pandemic — the complete guide

For U.S. visitors, you must meet one of two criteria:

  • A completed AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna or Pfizer vaccine.
  • A previous COVID-19 infection, as confirmed with a positive antibody test or positive PCR test older than 14 days.

Visitors with significant ties to Iceland must be tested within 48 hours of arrival to Iceland.

All visitors need to preregister before travel and can present an official paper or electronic COVID-19 vaccine certificate that includes the traveler's name, date of birth, date and location of vaccination, vaccine administered and the manufacturer and batch or lot number, as outlined on this page .

Related: Traveling to Iceland when vaccinated — my experience and what to expect

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Iceland is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Dublin, Ireland November 2015. Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy.

Per the U.S. Embassy in Ireland , both vaccinated and unvaccinated Americans are allowed into Ireland at this time.

No travel-related testing or quarantine is necessary for entry for U.S. travelers who can show proof of vaccination via an EMA-authorized vaccine or recovery from COVID-19 in the past 180 days, but unvaccinated travelers must present results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours as well as quarantine for 14 days, to be shortened by taking a negative PCR test on day five.

Children between the ages of 12 and 17 will also be required to show results of a negative PCR unless they have proof of vaccination or recent recovery from COVID-19, according to the Irish government.

Read more: Ireland is about to reopen to international tourists — including Americans

All visitors also need to fill out a passenger locator form at least 48 hours prior to arrival. Failure to complete testing and quarantine requirements is punishable by Irish law via a fine of up to $2,860 or six months in jail, per the Embassy.

As of March 26, 2021, passengers arriving into Ireland from designed high-risk countries, including those only transiting through Ireland, must quarantine for two weeks in a government-approved hotel. The list of high-risk countries can be found here and does not include the U.S.

Face masks are required on public transit and are recommended in outdoor settings where social distancing isn't possible.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Ireland is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Related: Americans to be welcomed back to Ireland without quarantine beginning July 19

Milan March 2017. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Through at least Oct. 25, 2021, Americans are allowed to visit Italy as long as they can provide proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test, per the Italian government.

Americans are to present results of a negative PCR or antigen test taken within 72 hours of arrival to Italy, in addition to showing one of the following:

  • A COVID-19 vaccination certificate showing proof of an EMA-authorized vaccine, specifically Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson or AstraZeneca. The date of the final vaccine dose must be at least 14 days prior to travel. Travelers vaccinated in the U.S. can prove this via the CDC's "white card" given at vaccination.
  • A medical certificate confirming recovery from COVID-19 dated within six months before departure.

Passengers unable to present a valid vaccination or recovery certificate will have to self-isolate on arrival for five days and undergo a PCR or rapid antigen test at the end of isolation, per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in Italy .

Additionally, proof of vaccination is required to visit most indoor establishments, including museums, restaurants, bars, pastry shops and public transportation, as of Aug. 6, 2021. The CDC card plus a government-issued photo ID will be accepted as proof to access these indoor venues.

Unvaccinated travelers may be able to gain access by showing results of a negative COVID-19 test within the last 48 hours.

All arrivals to Italy must notify the local health authority and complete an online passenger locator form.

Related: On the ground: What the scene in Italy is like right now

Children age 6 and older accompanied by a parent/caregiver with the EU Digital COVID Certificate must still take the pre-departure COVID-19 test while children under age 6 are exempt.

Masks are mandatory on public transit. Transiting through Italian airports is allowed, but those traveling from specific countries are required to remain within a designated area of the airport during transit. See the Italian Ministry of Health's website for more details.

Related: Answers to your 11 most frequent questions about Italy's reopening

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Italy is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

All arrivals in Kosovo must provide proof of vaccination or results of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or 48 hours for a rapid antigen test. Travelers who have proof of recovery from COVID-19 within the past 180 days can also present that to satisfy entry requirements, per the U.S. Embassy in Kosovo .

Those transiting Kosovo for less than three hours as well as those under the age of 18 are exempt from arrival testing requirements.

Face masks are mandatory in most settings, including when not alone outdoors. Restaurants are currently only open for outdoor dining until 9:30 p.m., and a curfew remains in place from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Kosovo is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Riga, Latvia August 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of Sept. 1, 2021, travel to Latvia is restricted to vaccinated travelers only with few exceptions, per the U.S. Embassy in Latvia .

The new regulations permit vaccinated travelers who can show proof of vaccination via a CDC paper vaccine certificate, digital EU certificate or a vaccination certificate issued in other countries (including the EU, EEA, Switzerland or the United Kingdom). Vaccinated travelers from the EU, EEA, Switzerland or the U.K. are free to travel to Latvia for nonessential travel without a negative COVID-19 test or self-isolation.

Unvaccinated U.S. travelers arriving in Latvia from high-risk countries, including the U.S., may only enter Latvia for "essential" travel approved by the government. If approved, those travelers must show results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours before arrival or a negative antigen test taken within 48 hours, followed by a second test within 24 hours after arrival at the traveler's expense, along with a 10-day self-isolation period.

U.S. citizens arriving from other countries designated by Latvia as low-risk may enter Latvia for nonessential purposes, including tourism. The Latvian government maintains a list of country designations by risk of COVID-19 here .

Travelers who have visited countries not designated as low-risk for COVID-19 in the previous 14 days are still prohibited from Latvia as tourists.

All unvaccinated travelers age 11 and over, including U.S. citizens, will be required to present a negative COVID-19 test from within the previous 72 hours. If the result is positive, the traveler must pay for self-isolation in one of the tourist accommodations specified by the Latvian Investment and Development Agency.

Additionally, all visitors must complete an electronic confirmation form no earlier than 48 hours before entering the country, confirming that they will agree to established epidemiological safety measures upon arrival.

Per the embassy, there are no direct flights between the United States and Latvia.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Latvia is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Liechtenstein

Switzerland handles immigration and customs matters for Liechtenstein, meaning that as long as you are qualified to enter Switzerland , you are able to enter Liechtenstein. There is an open border between the two countries.

Americans are allowed in for tourism at this time, according to the U.S. Embassy in Switzerland, so long as you show one of the following:

  • Results of a negative COVID-19 test.
  • Recovery from COVID-19.

If you have been in a country with a variant of concern in the last 10 days before entering Switzerland, are not vaccinated or are unable to prove that you have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months, you must quarantine for 10 days, with an opportunity to shorten quarantine after seven days with testing. Visit the Swedish government's website for more information .

All travelers must complete an entry form as well and the Swedish government has a Travelcheck tool that allows you to check whether and under what conditions you can enter Switzerland.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Liechtenstein is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Vilnius, Lithuania May 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of June 1, 2021, fully vaccinated U.S. citizens are allowed to enter Lithuania, per the U.S. Embassy in Lithuania , which also notes that there are no direct flights between the two countries and therefore encourages travelers to double-check entry/exit requirements of transiting countries.

U.S. citizens who have been fully vaccinated do not need to quarantine or self-isolate.

All travelers will be required to complete an online registration form no earlier than 48 hours before the start of the trip and present a digital QR code to the carrier upon boarding.

For additional information about entry requirements, consult the Lithuanian government's website.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Lithuania is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Luxembourg November 2016.

Luxembourg currently only allows EU citizens, EU residents and residents of certain other specific countries to enter, including those coming from the U.S.

All travelers flying by air to Luxumbourg, age 6 and over, must present one of the following:

  • A vaccination certificate attesting to a complete vaccination carried out by an EMA, public or medical authority of a member state of the EU or a member state of the Schengen Area, including AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and Moderna.
  • A negative COVID-19 PCR or viral antigen test taken within 72 hours of travel.
  • A certificate of recovery issued by a physician or a national authority of a member state of the EU or a member state of the Schengen Area for persons who have recovered from COVID-19 within six months prior to travel.

Per the U.S. Embassy in Luxembourg , U.S. citizens are not required to quarantine.

Consult the Luxembourgian government for more information.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Luxembourg is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

The U.S. is no longer on Malta's " amber list " of countries, which means only vaccinated Americans are allowed to visit.

You must have been fully vaccinated at least two weeks before arrival, per the U.S. Embassy in Malta:

"As of 01 August 2021 CDC vaccination cards must be verified through the VeriFLY app to be accepted as a valid vaccination certificate."

Per the Maltese government, all arrivals from the U.K. will be required to demonstrate proof of full vaccination. For U.K. nationals, this means a paper version of the National Health Service COVID-19 letter, which can be found here .

If accompanied by vaccinated adults, children ages 5-11 must provide a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival and those ages 12-18 must be vaccinated to enter Malta.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Malta is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Read more: Travelers from 38 US states are allowed to visit Malta starting June 17

Although U.S. citizens are permitted to enter Moldova, the U.S. Embassy in Moldova is currently advising citizens to refrain from doing so.

Travelers age 5 and older who do enter Moldova must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival (to avoid two weeks of self-isolation). Fully vaccinated travelers are now exempt from testing requirements.

More information on travel to Moldova is available from the Moldovian government .

As of June 9, 2021, fully vaccinated travelers from the USA and Canada are permitted to travel to France and Monaco, as France handles immigration and customs for Monaco, per the Monaco government .

In addition to reporting travel plans to Monaco's health authorities , travelers must show proof of vaccination, along with one of the following:

  • Negative results of a PCR test taken within 72 hours.
  • Negative antigen test taken within 48 hours of boarding.

Travelers meeting the above criteria will not need to quarantine upon arrival.

The French government requires all international travelers arriving into or transiting through France, including those returning to Monaco, to complete an online COVID-19 symptoms form to be presented to your airline and then border officers upon arrival.

Unvaccinated travelers wishing to enter Monaco who are not citizens or permanent residents of a Schengen or EU country may request authorization through the Embassy of Monaco and may only do so for essential reasons.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Monaco is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Unknown Level of COVID-19 .

Montenegro remains open to foreigners and Montenegrin citizens, including Americans, as noted by the U.S. Embassy in Montenegro but there are a few caveats

As of Tuesday, September 14, The country requires U.S. travelers and others to be vaccinated.

Here are all the requirements for entry:

  • Must have received 2nd dose more than 14 days before border crossing for two dose vaccines, OR 14 days since immunization with J&J vaccine;
  • Must have negative PCR Covid-19 test not older than 72 hours OR a positive PCR test older than 14 and no older than 180 days;
  • Must get tested negative with rapid antigen test within 48 hours.

See more from the Montenegro government here.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Montenegro is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Netherlands

Amsterdam, Netherland (Photo by Liz Hund/The Points Guy)

As of June 24, 2021, Americans were able to travel freely to the Netherlands with no vaccine, negative COVID-19 test or quarantine required upon arrival, as the Dutch government added the U.S. to its list of "safe countries."

That has since changed dramatically. While the Netherlands has walked back a requirement for Americans to quarantine, you will now need to be fully vaccinated and have a negative test.

Related: Netherlands walks back full quarantine

The only travel requirement for Americans to fulfill ahead of time is the submission of a health declaration form , which some airlines allow you to complete digitally upon checking in for your flight, as noted by Dutch officials.

From Sept. 22, 2021, fully vaccinated visitors from the U.K., the U.S. and other countries on that list will no longer need to quarantine upon arrival in the Netherlands, according to USA Today .

Vaccinated travelers are still required to show a negative COVID-19 PCR test result upon arrival. People who are 13 and older who arrive by plane must also fill out a health declaration and carry it with them throughout their trip.

Unvaccinated visitors from high-risk countries are still prohibited from entering the Netherlands.

The Dutch government will still require a negative PCR test within 72 hours and a negative rapid test within 24 hours prior to departure or a negative PCR test within 24 hours prior to departure.

The Dutch government maintains a "checklist" for incoming travelers and the U.S. Embassy and Consulate in the Netherlands has more information.

Related: The Netherlands to welcome back Americans, with little restriction

For the latest updates on who is allowed to visit, check here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for the Netherlands is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

North Macedonia

North Macedonia is open to all tourists, including Americans.

According to the U.S. Embassy :

Effective September 1, all travelers ages eighteen and older entering and exiting North Macedonia must provide one of the following documents:
  • Vaccination certificate with two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine;
  • Negative PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to travel;
  • Negative rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours prior to travel; or
  • Certificate of COVID-19 recovery issued within the previous 45 days, counting from the day of recovery.

Skopje International Airport (SKP) and Ohrid St. Paul the Apostle Airport (OHD) reopened on July 1, 2020.

All arriving passengers will face temperature screening, but there are no quarantine or testing requirements for travelers beyond those arriving from India, who are required to quarantine for 14 days. Check the U.S. Embassy in North Macedonia for updates.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for North Macedonia Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: COVID-19 Very High .

Å, Norway (Photo by Liz Hund/The Points Guy)

As of Sept. 17, 2021, Norway remains closed to travelers from the U.S., according to the U.S. Embassy in Norway : "Currently, residents of the United States are not permitted to enter Norway, with limited exceptions."

Only vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19 in the past six months from the EU/EEA/Schengen Area as well as those from designated " green countries " are able to enter Norway, per the Norweigan government. Additionally, "green country" entrants are able to travel to Norway without having to quarantine.

More countries will be added to the "green" list as Norway adopts the EU's color code standards to lift travel restrictions for residents of some "third countries," including the U.S. Exact dates for this are not in place yet. Currently the United States falls under Norways' "purple countries," which severely limits travel.

All travelers to Norway over the age of 12 who are allowed to enter must now complete a registration form prior to traveling, present a negative COVID-19 PCR test result taken within 24 hours of travel and also be tested again for COVID-19 as soon as possible after arrival (usually at the airport, and it must take place within one day) and enter and pay for a 10-day quarantine in a quarantine hotel (reduced to seven days with two negative tests, one upon arrival and a PCR test no earlier than day seven).

On April 29, 2021, Norway introduced stricter testing requirements for travelers who have been outside the EEA/Schengen Area . The latest updates on testing and quarantine can be found through the Norwegian Institute of Public Health .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Norway is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Krakow, Poland June 2016. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Poland is open to U.S. citizens according to several TPG readers, though the embassy language remains a bit confusing.

Vaccinated individuals can avoid mandatory quarantine, and any travelers entering Poland from within the Schengen Area must present a negative PCR or antigen test taken at least 48 hours prior to arrival or enter a 10-day quarantine.

Unvaccinated travelers arriving from outside the Schengen Area must quarantine for 10 days or until they receive a negative result from a test taken within 48 hours of arrival in Poland; those who can show a certificate of vaccination against COVID-19 are exempt from quarantine.

The U.S. Embassy website makes it sound like Americans are not allowed, with the exception of U.S. citizens who have dual citizenship or fall within certain other categories.

But several TPG readers have told me they were able to visit without problems. Jackson Willhelm told me, "If you are fully vaccinated with an EU-approved vaccine then you do not have to quarantine (14 days after last shot) and the passenger locator form needs to be filled out online. I personally wasn't even asked to show proof of vaccination at any point."

Check with the U.S. Embassy in Poland for specifics. Additional information is also available on the Polish government's website .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Poland is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory for the country is Level 1: Very Low Level of COVID-19 .

Portugal September 2018. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Portugal is open to tourists from the U.S. with proof of a negative COVID-19 test, per the U.S. Embassy in Portugal.

All travelers age 2 and older must submit a negative PCR test performed in the last 72 hours or a rapid antigen test performed within 48 hours of boarding. The U.S. government says you may be asked to quarantine upon arrival and those from certain countries are required to do so for two weeks, per the Portuguese government .

Travelers also must fill out an online form and face a health screening, and those from certain countries must self-quarantine for 14 days. Details are available on the TAP Air Portugal website .

Related: Portugal reintroduces nightly curfew amid rising COVID-19 cases

Masks are mandatory in indoor public spaces and outside when social distancing isn't possible.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Portugal is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Related: Portugal is now open to American tourists with a negative COVID-19 test

On June 1, 2021, the Romanian government eliminated restrictions on nonessential travel for foreigners, per the Romanian Embassy in D.C.

However, quarantine for 14 days is required if you are unvaccinated, with a test-out option on day 10 with a negative test from day 8.

The U.S. Embassy in Romania says foreign citizens will be subject to quarantine unless they present proof of testing, vaccination or recovery from COVID-19. Otherwise, foreign citizens arriving in Romania from third countries (countries that are not members of the EU, EEA or Swiss Confederation) must quarantine for 14 days regardless of your country/zone of arrival. Read here for further information on additional exemptions.

You may be asked to undergo a health screening upon arrival at Henri Coanda International Airport (OTP), along with an online questionnaire.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Romania is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

The Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky skyline. (Image by www.tonnaja.com/Getty Images)

Since March 18, 2020, U.S. citizens have remained banned, along with most foreign nationals, from visiting Russia, the U.S. Embassy in Russia notes.

The Russian government requires that all foreign travelers present a negative PCR COVID-19 test result upon arrival, dated within three days prior to arrival in Russia, along with completion of a digital form that must be printed out and presented to customs in Russia.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Russia is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

According to the U.S. Embassy in Serbia, Americans are welcome in Serbia, but there is a new requirement for a negative PCR or antigen test no older than 48 hours old at the time of arrival in the country.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Serbia is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

As of July 19, 2021, Slovakia is again open to American visitors per the U.S. Embassy in Slovakia .

Fully vaccinated travelers do not need COVID-19 test results and do not need to self-quarantine

The Slovakian Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs maintains a list of current country color designations, as their pandemic control measures vary regionally based on its traffic light system , which automatically updates restrictions weekly based on local disease indicators and divides counties into three groups for border entry requirements: green, red and black.

According to the embassy, "Unvaccinated travelers must self-quarantine for 14 days, or they may self-quarantine for at least 5 days, take a PCR test, and self-quarantine ends upon receipt of negative test results. "

All passengers age 10 and older who do not fall into a specific exemption category must fill out an electronic monitoring form in advance to present at the border.

All travelers who have visited only "green countries" in the prior 14 days and are fully vaccinated, recovered from COVID-19 within 180 days, and/or are under 18 years old do not need to present test results or self-quarantine. Unvaccinated travelers over 18 years old who have not recovered from COVID-19 within the last 180 days but have only been present in "green countries" in the prior 14 days must quarantine until they receive negative results of a PCR or antigen test. If travelers do not want to take a test, they may self-isolate for 14 days instead. Quarantine requirements vary based on age, travel within the previous 14 days and vaccination status. Consult the U.S. Embassy in Slovakia for updated information.

According to the U.S. Embassy, "all eligible travelers must register online in advance at korona.gov.sk/ehranica . Fully vaccinated travelers do not need to quarantine, however, they must carry proof of vaccination."

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Slovakia is Level 2: Excercise Increased Caution and the CDC's advisory is Level 2: Moderate Level of COVID-19 .

Americans are welcome to Slovenia for nonessential travel, including tourism, as long as they are fully vaccinated or recently recovered from COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy in Slovenia .

U.S. citizens who have residency in the EU or are married to a Slovenian citizen can also be admitted with proof of a negative test.

For essential travel, U.S. citizens are required to submit proof of completed vaccination, recovery from COVID-19 or a negative PCR or rapid antigen test. Those without proof may be asked to quarantine for 10 days.

Children under age 15 accompanying their parents can bypass quarantine and testing requirements.

The Slovenian government provides an optional web application to fill out ahead of time for smoother entry, including for transiting passengers.

The country also welcomes travelers from neighboring countries, including Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Italy. More information is available from the Slovenian Police Border Crossing .

The State Department's advisory for Slovenia is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Madrid June 2017. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

As of September, Spain is now requiring proof of vaccination for most Americans to enter Spain. The country will require proof of vaccination to enter the country — and there are almost no exceptions .

The Spanish government also requires all passengers coming to Spain from outside the country to complete a Health Control Form at least 48 hours prior to departure to the country, including international transits. You may begin to fill out the form at any time prior to your trip, excluding sections that are limited to two days prior to your arrival. Both the form and associated QR code are necessary for entry.

Related: Proof of vaccination now required for Spain

All passengers coming from high-risk countries are still required to submit a negative active infection diagnostic test, or PCR test carried out within 72 hours prior to arrival. Travelers will also undergo temperature checks upon arrival. The Spanish Ministry of Health maintains a list of countries by risk designation. Minors are also able to enter so long as they are accompanied by fully vaccinated adults.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Spain is Level 4: Do Not Trave l and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Stockholm, Sweden August 2019. (Photo by Clint Henderson)

Unfortunately, after a few months of being allowed in, Americans are now subject to Sweden's entry ban, per the U.S. Embassy in Sweden .

According to the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs , U.S. passport holders who reside in nonexempt countries can transit to Sweden from third-party European countries, but there are no guarantees you will be allowed in, and any Americans trying to board direct flights to Sweden will not be allowed to board.

The Swedish Border Police maintain a list of countries by exemption, which currently lists 20 countries, including Albania, Australia and Singapore. The U.S. is no longer on that list.

Related: Sweden opening its borders to Americans on June 30

Sweden is using the EU Digital COVID Certificate or requires equivalent proof of vaccination. From the Swedish Border Police, "There is an entry ban and required negative COVID-19 test in effect for travels to Sweden from non-EEA* countries until 31 October 2021."

The EEA is comprised of the member states of the EU and the three countries of the EFTA — Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. For the purposes of travel to Sweden, the Swedish government also considers Switzerland, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican to be part of the EEA. More information on the EEA can be found here .

Sweden will always apply entry regulations according to the last country you enter from, even if this is only a transit country.

A negative PCR or antigen COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of arrival to Sweden is required for nonresident travelers, age 18 and older, originating outside the Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland).

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Sweden is Level 3: Reconsider Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 3: High Level of COVID-19 .

Switzerland

Lucerne, Switzerland April 2016. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

U.S. citizens who can show they've been fully vaccinated or recently tested negative for COVID-19 are welcome back to Switzerland, according to the U.S. Embassy in Switzerland . This applies to all fully vaccinated individuals from third countries , which consist of those outside the Schengen Area. To explore eligibility by country, use the Travelcheck tool administered by the Swiss government.

To enter freely, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health says you must show one of the following:

Otherwise, if you are traveling to Switzerland by plane and cannot prove one of the above, you will be required to take a test.

Read more: Switzerland is reopening, and you can fly there with wide-open business-class award space

The Swiss State Secretary for Migration has a list of high-risk countries that outlines whether or not you can enter Switzerland.

Note that if you have been in a country with a "worrying variant" in the last 10 days before entering Switzerland, are not vaccinated or are unable to prove that you have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months, you must self-isolate for 10 days, with the potential to shorten after seven days via a negative COVID-19 test. Fully vaccinated individuals are exempt from testing and quarantine requirements depending on their country of origin.

Additionally, all travelers must complete an entry form ahead of time.

Note that as of Sept. 13, 2021, Switzerland is requiring a "vaccine passport" for many activities outlined below:

europe travel for unvaccinated

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Switzerland is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: COVID-19 Very High .

Istanbul, Turkey May 2018. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Turkey's international borders remain open for travelers from a number of countries, including the U.S., according to the U.S. Embassy in Turkey .

Travelers over the age of 12 may enter Turkey seamlessly by showing proof of full vaccination at least 14 days before arrival or documentation of COVID-19 recovery in the past six months. Otherwise, all passengers from a country other than Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka or the United Kingdom, must show results of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or rapid antigen taken within 48 hours.

Additionally, all travelers are to complete a Turkey Entrance Form , both to be submitted at airline check-in (a printed copy or mobile screenshot of the form is acceptable).

Turkish Airlines outlines additional restrictions specific to the country here .

Related: Turkey is open to Americans

Upon arrival, travelers will be asked to fill out a passenger information form and undergo medical screenings for infection, and anyone showing symptoms upon arrival will be tested for COVID-19. Anyone who tests positive will be referred to a Turkish hospital for quarantine and treatment.

U.S. travelers should note that you are still required to apply for a visa before entering Turkey, which can be done via their e-Visa application , which takes about three minutes.

The State Department's travelers checklist for Turkey can be found here .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Turkey is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

U.S. citizens are currently able to enter the country, per the U.S. Embassy in Ukraine.

All U.S. citizens age 12 and older entering Ukraine from the U.S. must now show one of the following:

  • A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of entering Ukraine.
  • A negative antigen test.
  • Proof of medical insurance covering all expenses related to COVID-19 treatment while on the territory of Ukraine. Ukrainian health insurance coverage can be purchased online at visitukraine.today . You can find further details and exceptions to this requirement on the ministry's website .

More information can be found from the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs .

The U.S. State Department's advisory for Ukraine is Level 2: Excercise Increased Caution and the CDC's advisory for the country is Level 2: COVID-19 Level Moderate .

United Kingdom

London November 2016. (Photo by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy)

Americans can now travel to the United Kingdom. U.S. travelers must possess proof of vaccination and proof of a negative COVID-19 test to enter the U.K. without a 10-day quarantine.

There is further good news. As of Oct. 4, 2021, the U.K. will allow Americans who are fully vaccinated to skip prearrival testing. Other requirements are expected to be eased soon.

Related: UK making it easier for Americans to visit

Be aware that unvaccinated travelers or those without a vaccine from a recognized country will be required to adhere to the old amber testing and quarantine regime. This will include a prearrival test, tests on day two and day eight, and a 10-day quarantine.

Also note that the U.S. Embassy in the United Kingdom and the U.K. government advise citizens against reciprocal travel as the U.S. remains an "amber" country, per the U.K. government .

If you are fully vaccinated you can go by following the following steps:

  • Take a COVID-19 test (either PCR or antigen) within three days of departure.
  • Book and pay for a COVID-19 test to be taken on day two of your arrival in England. Qured is the testing provider suggested by the U.K. government.
  • Complete an online passenger locator form .

If you are unvaccinated, you can still go, but you must:

  • Present a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of departure.
  • Quarantine for 10 days, during which you must complete two additional COVID-19 tests on days two and eight.
  • Complete a passenger locator form within 48 hours of travel.

The quarantine rules do not apply to international passengers transiting U.K. airports.

Read more: Can I layover in LHR? What you need to know transiting from the US or UK to Europe

Note that quarantine can be reduced after one negative COVID-19 PCR test taken on day five under the Test to Release scheme . Children age 4 and younger do not need to take the day two or day eight test. The U.K. government maintains a list of countries by color designation.

On Feb. 8, 2021, the U.K. also increased the fine for noncompliance and anyone who fails to comply will be subject to a fine of 1,000 pounds ($1,360). The government also revealed stiff fines and even jail time for those who try to circumvent the mandates or lie on their required passenger locator forms; the latter could be a 10,000-pound ($13,789) fine or 10 years in jail. More details are here .

Read more: Scotland reopening to vaccinated Americans Aug. 2, no quarantine required

Please note that all four nations that comprise the U.K. have separate testing and quarantine requirements; see Scotland , Northern Ireland and Wales .

Scotland also allows unvaccinated Americans to visit, but with strict quarantine and testing requirements.

Related: Americans' hopes for visiting the UK just hit with a major setback

The U.K. has been especially hard-hit by the coronavirus and the new restrictions are a result of the chaos that erupted in December 2020 when a more infectious COVID-19 variant was found to be widely circulating in London and southeastern England.

The U.S. State Department's advisory for the United Kingdom is Level 4: Do Not Travel and the CDC's advisory is Level 4: Very High Level of COVID-19 .

Related: A country-by-country guide to the Caribbean

Additional reporting by Jordyn Fields, Donna Heiderstadt, Liz Hund and Caroline Tanner.

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A Country-by-country Guide to COVID-19 Entry Requirements in Europe

Everything you need to know for a safe and healthy trip to Europe.

europe travel for unvaccinated

When the COVID-19 pandemic first spread around the world, many countries shut their borders. In the years since, countries have opened, welcoming tourists with different vaccination or testing rules in place. 

But many countries in Europe have since dropped travel-related restrictions, reverting back to pre-pandemic times and making it easier than ever to plan a trip. 

Here, we've outlined every country in Europe and its current reopening status, including entry any requirements foreign travelers need to know.

Albania does not require U.S. travelers to show any COVID-19-related documents or tests, according to the U.S. Embassy in Albania .

To get to Andorra, visitors need to go through France or Spain, and therefore abide by the rules and regulations for those individual countries. Beyond that, there are no further entry requirements for coming to Andorra, according to the Andorra tourism site .

Austria is open to travel and there are no vaccination or testing requirements in place, according to the country’s official tourism site . In Vienna, masks must be worn on public transportation. 

Belgium welcomes travelers from the U.S. and does not require them to show proof of vaccination, recovery, or a negative test, according to the U.S. Embassy in Belgium . 

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina welcomes U.S. travelers without any COVID-19-related travel restrictions, according to the U.S. Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina .

Bulgaria welcomes U.S. travelers without any COVID-19-related travel restrictions, according to the U.S. Embassy in Bulgaria . 

Croatia welcomes U.S. travelers without any COVID-19-related travel restrictions, according to the Croatian National Tourist Board .

Cyprus has eliminated all COVID-19-related entry restrictions, according to the Deputy Ministry of Tourism . Masks remain mandatory on public transportation. 

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic has eliminated all COVID-19-related entry restrictions, according to the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic .

Denmark eliminated all of its COVID-19 entry and internal restrictions, according to the government’s COVID-19 website .

Estonia has eliminated all COVID-19-related rules, according to the government .

Finland has lifted all COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the Finnish government .

France has lifted all pandemic-related entry rules, according to the French government .

There are no longer any COVID-19-related entry rules for travel to Germany, according to the German Missions in the United States .

Greece has lifted all pandemic-era travel rules, according to the government . Greece has an optional Passenger Locator Form travelers can choose to fill out.

Hungary has lifted all COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the Hungarian Police .

Iceland welcomes travelers without any pandemic-era entry rules in place, according to Iceland’s COVID-19 website .

Ireland has removed all COVID-19-related entry rules for travel, according to the government .

Italy has lifted all COVID-19-related travel rules, according to the country's National Tourist Board .

Travelers entering Kosovo are not required to show proof of vaccination, according to the U.S. Embassy in Kosovo , but the embassy recommends travelers bring such proof. The country also doesn’t require pre-arrival testing, but the embassy said some airlines may.

Access to public institutions, malls, and indoor dining inside does require proof of vaccination or proof of a negative COVID-19 test for customers over 16.

Latvia has lifted all COVID-19-related travel rules, according to the Latvian tourism board .

Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein, a landlocked country, is accessible through Switzerland or Austria. Switzerland handles all immigration for Liechtenstein. COVID-19-related travel restrictions have been lifted in Liechtenstein, according to the European Union .

Lithuania no longer requires any pre-arrival testing or proof of vaccination to visit, according to the national tourism development agency .

Luxembourg welcomes travelers from all countries, regardless of their vaccination status, according to the U.S. Embassy in Luxembourg . Travelers do not need any pre-arrival COVID-19 tests.

Malta has eliminated all pandemic-related travel restrictions, according to the Malta Tourism Authority .

Moldova does not have any COVID-19-related entry restrictions in place for U.S. travelers, according to the U.S. Embassy in Moldova .

To get to Monaco, most visitors must travel through France. Monaco does not have any pandemic-related travel restrictions in place, according to the government .

Montenegro does not have any COVID-19-related entry rules in place, according to the U.S. Embassy in Montenegro . Face masks are required on public transportation, according to the country’s government .

Netherlands

The Netherlands has lifted COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the government .

North Macedonia

North Macedonia is open to American travelers who are not required to undergo any COVID-related entry requirements, according to the U.S. Embassy in North Macedonia .

Norway has discontinued all COVID-19-related entry restrictions, including pre-arrival testing, according to the government . 

Poland has lifted all pandemic-era entry rules, including for vaccination and testing, according to the government . 

Portugal, including the Azores and Madeira, no longer requires proof of vaccination or a negative test to enter, according to Visit Portugal .

Romania has lifted all pandemic-era entry rules, according to the government . 

San Marino is a landlocked country surrounded by Italy. The country doesn’t have any specific COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the International Air Transport Association .

Serbia has removed all COVID-19-related entry restrictions, according to the U.S. Embassy in Serbia .

Slovakia has lifted all pandemic-related entry rules, according to Slovakia Travel . Travelers no longer have to show any proof of vaccination or tests to enter hotels, restaurants, or other venues.

Slovenia has eliminated pandemic-era travel restrictions, according to the government .

Spain has dropped all COVID-19-related health controls at entry points, according to the government , becoming one of the last European countries to do so. However, the country still asks that travelers from outside the European Union travel with either proof of vaccination administered within 270 days, proof of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of departure, proof of a negative rapid antigen test taken within 24 hours of departure, or proof they contracted COVID-19 and recovered within 180 days.

Sweden no longer has any COVID-19-related entry restrictions, according to the Public Health Agency of Sweden .

Switzerland

Switzerland has lifted all COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the Federal Office of Public Health .

Turkey is open to foreign travelers and does not have any COVID-19-related entry rules in place, according to the U.S. Embassy and Consulates in Turkey .

Visitors to Ukraine must show proof of either vaccination or proof of a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours, according to the U.S. Embassy in Ukraine . Travelers must also have a health insurance policy to cover the potential costs of COVID-19 treatment.

The U.S. Department of State has currently issued a Level 4: Do Not Travel warning against visiting Ukraine due to the ongoing war and Russian invasion.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has dropped all COVID-19-related entry rules, according to the government .

Vatican City

Vatican City is the world's smallest country and is encircled by the Italian city of Rome. It is open to travelers who are able to enter Italy .

The information in this article reflects that of the publishing time above. However, as statistics and information regarding coronavirus rapidly change, some figures may be different from when this story was originally posted. While we strive to keep our content as up to date as possible, we also recommend visiting sites like the CDC or websites of local health departments.

europe travel for unvaccinated

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Going to Europe? These 7 countries have tightened rules on Americans.

E.u. countries are getting stricter with american tourists since the united states was removed from the ‘safe list’.

europe travel for unvaccinated

The door to Europe hasn’t swung shut for Americans. But in the days since the European Union removed the United States from its “safe list,” several countries have put up new roadblocks — and some have blocked the way altogether.

American travelers can still visit much of the continent, though pandemic-era entry requirements are all over the map. The E.U. move late last month leaves individual states to decide which restrictions to put in place.

So far, the changes have included adding testing rules, putting vaccine mandates into place for travelers, adding quarantine requirements and even banning visitors.

“We have to accept that we are still living through the reality of this ongoing pandemic and will not return to ‘normal’ straight away with some setbacks on our way to recovery,” Luís Araújo, president of the European Travel Commission, said in an email. “However, we believe that with current vaccination rates and safety protocols in place, safe international travel is possible. And this summer has proven it well.”

European Union recommends new travel restrictions for unvaccinated Americans

Araújo said most European destinations remain open to U.S. visitors, and encouraged Americans to check the Re-open EU website or national tourism office sites for updated information.

Americans who have not been vaccinated will no longer be allowed to vacation in France, starting Sept. 12.

The French government has moved the United States from its green list to orange, which means unvaccinated people coming from the country need “proof of a compelling reason” to enter France. That includes diplomats, some students and healthcare workers — but not tourists.

Those with a compelling reason still need a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours or antigen test within 48 hours, and must self-isolate for seven days after arriving. There is no change for vaccinated travelers.

The government of Sweden said this month that it was reintroducing the ban on entry for travelers from the United States, effective Sept. 6. Only those with exemptions — including those who have residence permits in Sweden, have “particularly urgent needs” or have to carry out essential functions — can enter. Those who qualify for an exemption still need a negative coronavirus test to enter.

The U.S. Embassy in Sweden notes that Americans who live in an exempted country can still enter Sweden, as can U.S. citizens who are coming through a Nordic or European country — though rules vary by country.

The Netherlands

According to the U.S. Embassy in the Netherlands, U.S. visitors must be fully vaccinated, test negative and comply with a mandatory quarantine. That self-quarantine period is 10 days, but a negative test on the fifth day could shorten the time, according to a government site .

Eric Drésin, secretary general of the association representing European travel agents and tour operators, called the Dutch policy a “de facto ban” during a discussion between global trade associations this week.

“Who wants to come to Amsterdam and stay their whole holiday in quarantine?” he said.

On Sept. 15, the government said the rules for self-quarantine would change on Sept. 22. Vaccinated travelers from the United States, United Kingdom and other areas considered “very high-risk” will not have to quarantine upon arrival after that date.

Everything you need to know about traveling to Italy

Travelers to Italy need a negative test result within 72 hours of arrival, plus proof of vaccination or a certificate confirming recovery from covid-19 that is no more than six months old, according to the U.S. Embassy in Italy. Those who can’t show that they are vaccinated or recently recovered from the virus will need to self-isolate for five days and get tested at the end of that time.

As of Sept. 6, U.S. travelers must show proof of vaccination against the coronavirus to visit Spain, according to the U.S. Embassy there.

U.S. residents can visit Belgium with a valid vaccination certificate as of the beginning of September, according to the Belgian Embassy in the United States. They do not need to show an essential-travel certificate.

Effective Sept. 4, Denmark allows fully vaccinated U.S. travelers for any reason. They are exempt from testing and quarantine requirements once they arrive, according to the U.S. Embassy in Denmark. Those who are unvaccinated can visit only if they have an accepted “worthy purpose” and a negative coronavirus test.

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europe travel for unvaccinated

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How to Travel to Europe from the U.S. Right Now

European countries have again adjusted their policies after the united states was removed from the eu safe travel list—and the result is a wide variety of entry protocols, ranging from outright bans to no changes at all..

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How to Travel to Europe from the U.S. Right Now

As of September 9, only vaccinated Americans can still travel to France for leisure purposes.

Photo by Shutterstock

On August 30, the United States was removed from the European Union’s approved list of countries for entry—only a little more than two months after it had finally been added to the list following a seemingly endless 458-day ban on travel from the U.S. to Europe.

The move left many travelers wondering if and how the decision would affect their upcoming travel plans. The answers depend on how individual countries in the 27-nation European Union respond to the recommendation, which is just that, a recommendation.

America’s spot on the European Council’s approved travel list meant that EU countries could relax restrictions for U.S. leisure travelers, both vaccinated and unvaccinated—and that’s exactly what the vast majority did. Now that the United States has been removed, European countries have responded with a wide range of policy adjustments—from outright bans on travel from the U.S. (such as in Sweden and Bulgaria), to restricting unvaccinated travelers from entering while still allowing vaccinated visitors to come (Italy, Germany, France and Spain have taken this path). And some have changed nothing at all about their policies toward U.S. travelers—at least not yet.

The council’s recommendations state that only vaccinated travelers, those traveling for essential reasons, and those traveling for nonessential reasons from the list of approved countries should be allowed to enter Europe.

But each country in Europe ultimately has the final say on what its requirements are—and will be—for travelers entering its borders. After more than a year and a half of travelers having to chase down constant changes to entry restrictions around the world, the latest round of updates in Europe has proven to be no exception to what has been a never-ending patchwork of new rules and regulations to navigate.

Are Americans banned from traveling to Europe now?

No, Americans are not banned from traveling to all of Europe.

At press time, two European countries—Sweden and Bulgaria—had reintroduced outright bans on U.S. travel. But the majority of European countries remain open to U.S. travelers, particularly those who are vaccinated. Some countries have introduced new regulations barring nonessential travel for unvaccinated U.S. travelers, including France, Germany, Italy, and Spain—meaning no vaccination, no leisure travel.

But Portugal has said it will continue to allow U.S. travelers to enter, regardless of vaccination status, as long as they provide a negative COVID test result upon arrival, and some countries, such as Greece, have not yet instituted changes that cut off access to U.S. travelers.

Once countries reach certain epidemiological benchmarks (no more than 75 COVID-19 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, for instance), they can be considered for the European Council’s approved countries list, which allows for the lifting of restrictions on nonessential travel regardless of vaccination status.

Unfortunately, during the current Delta variant–spurred wave , the United States has surpassed some of those benchmarks and thus has been removed from the list. For instance, one of the requirements is that cases should be stable or decreasing, but the United States has seen a steady uptick in cases in recent weeks.

Of course, there could be additional changes and updates in the coming days and weeks, especially as countries keep a close watch on factors such as the Delta variant and the evolution of the pandemic in general. European Union leaders have agreed on an “emergency brake mechanism” that takes into account the possible risks posed by new variants and allows new restrictions to be imposed quickly if need be.

It is worth noting that the United States still has a ban in place on travel from the European Schengen Area, the United Kingdom, and Ireland, with the exception of U.S. citizens and permanent residents.

What kind of proof of vaccination must Americans have to enter Europe?

The European Union is facilitating travel within Europe with the EU Digital COVID Certificate, a digital pass for EU residents who have been vaccinated for COVID-19, tested negative for the virus, or have recovered from it. While the digital document has not yet been made widely available to U.S. travelers, most European countries asking U.S. travelers for proof of vaccination status as one of the requirements for entry have indicated that the CDC-issued paper certificate will suffice.

How can U.S. travelers stay up to date on EU travel restrictions?

One excellent resource is the U.S. State Department’s detailed COVID-19 travel information and country-specific advisories , which are typically updated regularly. We often cross-check these references with entry requirements that are published by each individual country’s foreign or public health affairs office (many of which are linked below). Countries’ official tourism marketing organizations often provide up to date information for travelers as well.

U.S. travelers should be aware that all international passengers age two and older flying into the U.S. (including returning U.S. citizens and permanent residents) must provide proof of a negative COVID-19 test procured within three days before boarding their flight to the United States.

In addition, the CDC has detailed recommendations for travel during the pandemic, both for vaccinated and unvaccinated travelers.

Travelers should also verify all the public health measures and openings and closures that are in place throughout Europe. European countries are all closely monitoring pandemic factors such as the Delta variant . Some businesses and services may have limited operating hours or capacity restrictions, curfews could be in place, and there could be additional regulations on the ground, including COVID passes that are required for entry into certain venues such as in France and Italy . These restrictions can change frequently so it’s important to stay current.

A country-by-country guide to travel restrictions for Americans in Europe

Here’s a brief summary of how some European countries are approaching travel for Americans as of September 8, 2021. This is far from an exhaustive list, but it serves as an example of how different all the rules and regulations continue to be within Europe. It remains vital that travelers heading into Europe and crossing borders within Europe are up to date on the latest travel restrictions related to COVID-19 because they are constantly changing.

Quarantine-free travel from the United States to Austria is allowed as long as travelers present a CDC-issued vaccination certificate indicating they received their second vaccine dose no more than 360 days prior to travel or have recovered from COVID-19 in the past 180 days. Unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. can still enter Austria but must pre-register , present a negative COVID-19 test upon arrival (a PCR from within 72 hours of travel, or an antigen from within 48 hours of travel), and they must quarantine for 10 days, according to the Austrian government .

Nonessential travel from the U.S. to Belgium is permitted provided travelers have a valid vaccine certificate, according to the U.S. Embassy in Belgium . Those who are not vaccinated are not permitted to enter Belgium for nonessential travel purposes. Travelers entering Belgium need to fill out a Passenger Locator Form no more than 48 hours before arrival.

On September 1, Bulgaria classified the United States as a “red zone” country, meaning that all travelers arriving from the U.S., regardless of vaccination status, can only enter if they have a valid exception—in short, nonessential travel is out. “The fact that you are vaccinated or have a negative COVID test result is not considered an exception,” reports the U.S. Embassy in Bulgaria . Interestingly, though, Bulgaria’s requirements are based on where you are traveling from, not citizenship, so U.S. travelers arriving from “green” or “orange” zone countries may enter Bulgaria.

Leisure travelers can enter Croatia if they present a COVID-19 vaccination certificate (the final dose must have been administered at least 14 days and no more than 270 days prior to arrival); can present a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken no more than 72 hours prior to arrival or a negative antigen test taken no more than 48 hours before arrival in Croatia; or were diagnosed with and recovered from COVID-19 (there are several very specific requirements for this, so confirm the latest with the Croatian government ). Children under 12 are exempt.

The U.S. Embassy in Croatia reminds travelers that they must fill out an arrival form at Enter Croatia before reaching the border.

Cyprus is following a color-coded system for COVID travel requirements. At press time, the United States was classified as red, meaning that travelers from the U.S. to Cyprus must provide proof of a negative COVID-19 PCR test procured within 72 hours of departure and complete an online Cyprus Flight Pass form . They will also need to pay 15–19 euros (US$18–$22) for a PCR test that they will take upon arrival in Cyprus; the result will be available within three hours online . Children under 12 are exempt from the testing.

Czech Republic (Czechia)

The Czech Republic now considers the United States a country with very high risk, and as such U.S. travelers must present proof of vaccination or proof of having recovered from COVID-19 within the last 180 days. Those who are unvaccinated will need to provide a negative COVID-19 PCR test from within 72 hours of travel or a negative antigen test from within 48 hours of travel to the Czech Republic. They will then be required to take another PCR test five days after arrival and will have to quarantine until a negative result is procured, according to the Czech government .

Vaccinated U.S. travelers are still welcome to enter Denmark , but those who have recovered from COVID-19 now need a “worthy purpose” to enter—such as for work, studies, family, legal, or real estate matters—and unvaccinated U.S. travelers must quarantine after arrival in addition to providing a negative COVID-19 PCR test from within 72 hours of boarding and then getting tested again upon arrival. (They didn’t have to quarantine before.)

Estonia is only welcoming vaccinated U.S. travelers or unvaccinated travelers who are traveling for an essential work, study, or family reason. Travelers arrriving in Estonia must complete an online health declaration , according to the U.S. Embassy in Estonia .

Finland has reopened its borders to leisure travelers who have been fully vaccinated for COVID-19, including Americans, with the last dose having been administered at least 14 days prior to arrival.

Fully vaccinated U.S. travelers must present their CDC-issued vaccination certificate upon arrival in Finland, after which there will be no mandatory COVID-19 testing or quarantine.

Unvaccinated travelers from the United States are allowed to enter Finland for essential reasons only, according to the U.S. Embassy in Finland . They must also provide a negative COVID-19 test result, furnish proof of recent recovery from COVID-19, or take two COVID-19 tests upon arrival, the embassy advises.

Unvaccinated minors under 18 can enter with vaccinated parents or guardians.

On September 9, France moved the United States from its “green list” to its “orange list” of countries (or “amber list” depending on which section of the French government’s website you are looking at), meaning that unvaccinated U.S. travelers are no longer allowed to travel to France unless they have a pressing or compelling reason, such as being an EU citizen or resident, for an essential work purpose, or for studies.

Vaccinated travelers from the United States can continue to enter France with no additional requirements other than submitting a health declaration form . Americans who have recovered from COVID-19 within the past six months can present a certificate of recovery to enter France.

Unvaccinated minors traveling from the U.S. are allowed to enter France, but those age 12 and older will have to show a negative PCR or antigen test taken within 72 or 48 hours, respectively, before their flight.

As of July 21, visitors now need a special COVID pass to ride up the Eiffel Tower or visit French museums or movie theaters. To get the COVID pass, people must show they are either fully vaccinated, have a negative virus test, or provide proof they recently recovered from an infection.

Germany is no longer allowing unvaccinated Americans to enter for leisure travel after removing the United States from its list of unrestricted countries. Those arriving from countries that are not on the list must either be vaccinated or be traveling for an essential reason (such as an approved work purpose). For proof of vaccination, it must have been at least 14 days since the last vaccine dose was administered, and travelers must have a physical copy of their vaccine certificate. (A digital photo of a card will not be accepted.)

Travelers from the United States are allowed to enter Greece without having to quarantine if they meet certain conditions, according to the Greek government .

Those who have been vaccinated for COVID-19 at least 14 days prior to arrival do not need to quarantine and are also not required to provide a negative COVID-19 PCR test. Those who are not vaccinated will need to provide a negative COVID-19 PCR test that was conducted no more than 72 hours before arrival or a negative antigen test conducted no more than 48 hours prior to arrival in Greece. Children under 12 are exempt.

Every traveler must fill out a passenger locator form no more than 24 hours prior to arriving in Greece.

All international arrivals will be subject to random and mandatory health checks in Greece, which can include a rapid COVID-19 antigen test. Those who test positive for COVID will be transported to a quarantine hotel, paid for by the Greek government, where they will take a COVID-19 PCR test to confirm the results. For travelers who test positive again, they will remain in quarantine for at least 10 days, after which they will undergo a new round of testing to determine if they are COVID-free.

Visit Hungary notes that those who have been vaccinated, who have recovered from COVID-19 within the past six months, or who present a negative molecular COVID test from within 72 hours of travel are not subject to travel restrictions in Hungary.

Iceland welcomes vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19 into the country. They will still have to submit a negative COVID-19 PCR or antigen test result from within 72 hours ahead of arrival. A second test after arrival is recommended but not required. Those who are not vaccinated may travel to Iceland as well, but they will have to submit to a COVID-19 test upon arriving in Iceland, quarantine for five days, and then undergo a second test after the five-day quarantine. Everyone needs to preregister before visiting the country.

Travelers must provide proof that they have been fully vaccinated (so two doses if two doses are required) at least 14 days prior to arrival.

Read more: Iceland Travel Restrictions Continue to Change—Here’s Everything You Need to Know

Travelers from all non-European countries, including the U.K. and the U.S., are allowed to enter Ireland as of July 19 as long as the country is not on the European Union’s “emergency brake” list—countries that have new or renewed restrictions applied to them due to a worsening epidemiological situation.

Travelers arriving from the U.S. must provide proof of COVID-19 vaccination in order to bypass otherwise mandatory COVID-19 testing and quarantine. Those without proof of vaccination will need to present evidence of a negative COVID-19 PCR test result taken within 72 hours before arrival. They will then need to quarantine after arrival and take a second postarrival test.

In Italy , the latest changes have resulted in a new testing requirement for the vaccinated and no access for unvaccinated leisure travelers. Prior to August 31, Americans could enter Italy as long as they were vaccinated, had recovered from COVID, or presented a negative COVID test result. As of August 31, only those who are vaccinated or have recovered from COVID can enter (which means that unvaccinated leisure travelers won’t be allowed to enter), and they will also need to have a negative molecular or antigen COVID test result from within 72 hours of travel.

As of August 6, Italy requires people to have COVID passes to enter gyms, museums, and movie theaters, sit inside restaurants, and access other venues. To be eligible for a pass, individuals must prove they have received at least one vaccine dose in the last nine months, recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months, or tested negative in the previous 48 hours.

The Netherlands

After the Netherlands introduced a new 10-day quarantine requirement for vaccinated U.S. travelers on September 4, the government doubled back on its decision and is dropping the mandatory quarantine for vaccinated U.S. travelers effective September 22, 2021. Vaccinated travelers will need to present a negative COVID-19 PCR or antigen test performed within 24 hours before departure for the Netherlands. Children under 12 are exempt. Unvaccinated travelers are currently prohibited from entering for nonessential or leisure travel purposes.

Fully vaccinated travelers (meaning it has been at least 14 days since their second dose if two doses were required) entering Poland , including those from the U.S., are exempt from an otherwise mandatory 10-day quarantine.

Following the European Council’s decision to remove the U.S. from its safe travel list, Portugal announced that it will remain open to travelers from the United States. U.S. travelers must present a vaccine certificate or a negative PCR or antigen COVID test procured within 72 hours of boarding their flight to enter Portugal. Children under 12 are exempt.

The U.S. Embassy in Portugal reminds travelers that they must complete a Passenger Locator Card within 48 hours of traveling to Portugal and that proof of vaccination or a negative COVID test result is now required upon checking in at hotels, resorts, and vacation rental accommodations.

U.S. travelers who want to visit the Portuguese islands of the Azores or Madeira should be aware that they both have their own rules for entry.

International travelers arriving in Romania, including Americans, can skip a 14-day quarantine requirement if they provide proof of vaccination (completed at least 10 days prior to arrival) or proof of recovery from COVID-19, according to the U.S. Embassy in Romania . Children 3 and younger are exempt. Children age 3 to 16 must provide a negative COVID PCR test from within 72 hours of travel.

Spain is no longer allowing unvaccinated Americans to enter for leisure travel after it removed the United States from its list of countries with unrestricted access. Those arriving from countries that are not on the list must either be vaccinated or be traveling for an essential reason (such as an approved work purpose). Travelers to Spain from the U.S. must also fill out an online Health Control Form and present the resulting QR code upon arrival.

After lifting its ban on travel from the United States on June 30, Sweden has reinstated its U.S. travel ban, effective September 6. From June 30 to September 6, U.S. travelers who presented proof of a negative COVID-19 test from within 48 hours prior to arrival could enter Sweden, regardless of vaccination status. Now, only those Americans who are traveling to Sweden for an exempted purpose, such as residents of Sweden or essential workers, will be allowed to enter; they will still need to provide a negative COVID-19 test result upon arrival. Leisure travelers will be turned away at the border.

Switzerland

As of June 28, fully vaccinated travelers from the U.S. can enter Switzerland and will not need to quarantine or provide proof of a negative COVID-19 test result. They will just need to provide proof that they are fully vaccinated.

Unvaccinated travelers will need to present a negative COVID-19 PCR test from within 72 hours of travel or a negative COVID rapid antigen test result from within 48 hours of travel.

Travelers, regardless of vaccination status, will need to fill out an online form before entering Switzerland.

United Kingdom

Vaccinated Americans can enter the United Kingdom without a mandatory quarantine, the British government announced on July 28.

Fully vaccinated Americans arriving into the U.K. are required to submit a predeparture negative COVID-19 test taken prior to arrival and will need to take a COVID-19 PCR test on day 2 after arrival. Those vaccinated in the U.S. will also need to provide proof of U.S. residency.

Children age 11 and younger are exempt from the U.K.’s testing requirements for international arrivals.

Everyone entering the United Kingdom from abroad must fill out a passenger locator form before arrival, on which they will provide U.K. border control with their contact details, including their phone number and the address of their U.K. accommodation.

Unvaccinated Americans arriving in the U.K. are required to quarantine for 10 days and take three COVID tests—one within 3 days prior to departure to the U.K. and two (reserved in advance) after arrival, on day 2 and day 8 of the 10-day quarantine.

This article was originally published on May 6, 2020. It has been updated frequently, most recently on September 17, 2021, to include current information.

>> Next: Everything You Need to Know About Vaccinated Travel

Family Beach Fire.jpg

Traveling to Europe with kids? What to know about vaccination and entry rules

Sasha Brady

Mar 31, 2022 • 9 min read

Happy mother and son traveling to Paris and playing to be on a plane near the Eiffel Tower

The EU has introduced flexible vaccination rules for children traveling under the EU Digital COVID Certificate © Getty Images

Do children need a booster for travel in Europe this summer? Can unvaccinated children travel? Here's what you need to know as the European Union (EU) introduces flexible travel rules for people under the age of 18.

Across the EU, tourists who completed their primary jabs more than 270 days ago need a booster to enter countries such as France , Spain and Italy  — or be considered unvaccinated and therefore subject to additional rules such as testing.

This recommendation was introduced by the European Commission (the legal arm of the EU) on February 1 under the EU Digital COVID Certificate regulation . Most EU member states adopted it, though some, such as Ireland , Denmark and Sweden , have since scrapped all COVID-19 entry requirements at their borders.

What it's like for Americans proving they are vaccinated in Europe

Teenagers students using smartphone on a school break

This week, the Commission introduced new rules on the EU digital COVID certificate that exempt children under the age of 18 from the 270 days acceptance period following the primary vaccination series. This means that children are considered fully vaccinated after having received their primary dose; whether that's a two-shot vaccine series or a one-shot Johnson & Johnson vaccine. 

By April 6, this new feature will be included in the mobile app used to verify EU Digital COVID Certificates so that children's certificates remain active without the booster.

In a statement, Commissioner for Justice, Didier Reynders, said: "One of the biggest benefits of the EU Digital COVID Certificate is its flexibility to adapt to new circumstances. Following discussions with member states' public health experts, we have decided that the vaccination certificates of minors should not expire. When travelling, they will be able to continue using the certificate received after the primary series of vaccination."

This exemption applies to EU and Schengen Zone citizens and residents traveling within Europe, though some countries can adopt their own entry restrictions regardless of the Commission's ruling.

If you plan to travel to Europe with kids this summer, here's what you need to know about the latest entry rules and how they apply to you, even if you're traveling from countries outside of the EU like the UK and the US.

Can unvaccinated children travel to Europe?

Generally speaking, yes. Children under 12 are typically exempt from vaccination requirements in most countries but many require that children between the age of 12 and 18 have received the primary vaccine course to avoid testing rules.

What countries in Europe have scrapped COVID-19 entry restrictions?

Andorra , Denmark, Hungary , Lithuania , Iceland , Ireland, Montenegro , Norway , Poland , Romania , Slovenia , Sweden, and the United Kingdom have recently dropped all pandemic restrictions at their borders, meaning people no longer have to show vaccination certificates or negative tests to enter these countries, regardless of where they are coming from.

Two kids walking to the beach

Countries in Europe with travel restrictions

Here are some of the destinations in Europe that still require proof of vaccination, recovery or a negative test from travelers.

People over the age of 12 need one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory 270 days after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days); or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more: Austria Entry Requirements

Generally, people traveling from the EU/Schengen area can present proof of vaccination (booster mandatory 270 days after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days) or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (36 hours) test.

People from outside the EU or an area categorized as high-risk must present proof of vaccination. Children under 18 can present proof of recovery or a negative test. Children under 12 are exempt.

Belgium's rules vary depending on the COVID-19 risk associated with your departing country.

See more: Belgium Color Codes by Country

People need one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory 270 days after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days); or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

Children under the age of 12 are exempt from testing. Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more: Visit Croatia

People over the age of 12 need one of the following: proof of vaccination (booster mandatory seven months after primary vaccine course) or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test. People also have to take a PCR on arrival and isolate while awaiting results.

Children under the age of 12 are exempt from testing. Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more: Visit Cyprus

People must present proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after primary vaccine course) or recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days) to bypass additional restrictions. Unvaccinated travelers from the EU and approved countries including the UK and US must isolate for seven days upon arrival.

Children under the age of 12 are exempt from entry rules.

See more: Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs

People traveling from the EU, Schengen Zone or approved countries including Hong Kong, New Zealand and South Korea can present one of the following: proof of vaccination; recovery certificate (older than 28 days, but no less than three months old) or a PCR (48 hours) or antigen (48 hours) test. Children under the age of 12 are exempt from testing.

People traveling from outside the EU, including the UK and the US, must be vaccinated to enter Germany. Unvaccinated 6-11 year olds can enter with a vaccinated parent; unvaccinated accompanying over-12s can provide a negative PCR or antigen test.

See more: Government of Germany

People traveling from the EU, US, UK, Canada, Australia, and other approved countries need to present one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory seven months after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days); or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

Children under five are exempt from all entry requirements. Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more: Greece Ministry of Tourism

There are no entry rules for those traveling from the EU and Schengen Zone countries. However, people coming from third countries such as the UK and the US must provide proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after primary vaccine course) or recovery certificate (issued within the past six months).

Children born in 2007 or later are exempt if accompanied by a fully vaccinated adult.

See more:  Finland Border Guard

People must present one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after a primary vaccine course) or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (48 hours) test.

Children under 12 are exempt. Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more:  French Ministry of Foreign Affairs  

Cheerful friends cycling and skateboarding on street in city

People need to present one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory seven months after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days); or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (48 hours) test.

Children under the age of six are exempt from testing. Boosters are not required for those under 18 to be considered fully vaccinated.

See more:  Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation

People over the age of 12 need one of the following: proof of vaccination (second dose administered at least 14 days prior to travel); recovery certificate; or negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (48 hours) test.

See more: Discover Latvia

People need one of the following: proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past six months); or a negative PCR (48 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

Children under the age of 12 are exempt.

See more:  Visit Luxembourg

People must present proof of vaccination with a booster to travel to Malta. 

Children between the ages of five and 11 must present a negative PCR test (72 hours). Children under five are exempt.

See more:  Visit Malta  

Netherlands

There are no entry rules for people traveling from the EU/Schengen area or countries participating in the EU travel rules scheme. People from elsewhere, including the US and UK, must present proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory 270 days after primary vaccine course) or a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days but no earlier than 11 days).

Children under 12 traveling to the Netherlands from outside the EU/Schengen area must show a negative PCR (48 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

See more: Government of Netherlands

See more: Visit Portugal

People traveling to Slovakia must show proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after primary vaccine course).

See more: Slovakia Information Centre

People traveling from the EU can show proof of vaccination (boosters mandatory nine months after primary vaccine course); a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days) or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (24 hours) test.

People traveling from outside the EU must show proof of vaccination or recovery only (unless traveling to Balearic Islands where proof of vaccination is mandatory).

Children under 12 are exempt from vaccination requirements. Unvaccinated 12 to 17-year-olds can present a negative PCR (72 hours) test.

See more: Spain Ministry of Health

Switzerland

People traveling to Switzerland must show proof of vaccination ( booster mandatory 270 days after primary vaccine course) or a recovery certificate (issued within the past 180 days). 

Children under 18 are exempt.

See more: Switzerland Travel Check

Most people need to present one of the following: proof of vaccination; a recovery certificate (issued within the past six months but no less than 28 days); or a negative PCR (72 hours) or antigen (48 hours) test.

Children under the age of 12 are exempting from testing.

People from high-risk countries are subject to stricter rules including quarantine if they're unvaccinated.

See more: Visit Turkey

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CDC issues alert that measles cases are up, urging health providers to watch for disease

europe travel for unvaccinated

U.S. health officials are warning clinicians to be alert for cases of measles following several outbreaks, largely among children who were eligible for the vaccine but did not receive it.

In an email Thursday , the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urged vigilance among health providers across the U.S. following reports of nearly two dozen cases of the preventable virus since December. Health providers should look for patients with rash and fever, symptoms of measles, and pay attention to patients who have recently traveled internationally, the alert said.

Officials have tracked seven cases of measles being brought into the country and two U.S. outbreaks with more than five cases each, the CDC said. Most cases were in young children and adolescents who had not received the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine even though they were eligible. There have been similar upticks in measles rates around the world. CDC spokesperson Jasmine Reed confirmed this was the first nationwide alert to clinicians about the latest cases.

The U.S. is at a “canary in the coal mine” moment with rising cases among children of the highly infectious, vaccine-preventable disease, said Michael Osterholm, director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy . Federal data has shown a large drop in vaccinations and record levels of vaccine exemptions among kindergartners.

Measles outbreaks: Are you at risk of measles amid outbreaks in pockets of US? What you need to know.

“We're going to start seeing more and more of these outbreaks,” Osterholm told USA TODAY. “We're going to see more kids seriously ill, hospitalized and even die. And what's so tragic about this, these are all preventable.”

About a fifth of people who get measles will be hospitalized, according to the CDC. About one in 1,000 people who get the virus develop brain swelling that can lead to brain damage, while one to three in a thousand will die.

The U.S. is seeing a growing body of parents who don’t want to comply with vaccine recommendations, coupled with lagging access to health care to get vaccinated amid the pandemic, Osterholm said. The latest measles cases appear to show the risk of foregoing the safe and effective vaccine.

Since Dec. 1, the U.S. has seen outbreaks in Philadelphia , at a children’s hospital and later at a day care facility, and a family that had six cases in Washington state. Officials have also documented measles exposures at two international airports in the Washington, D.C. area , a separate case in the Atlanta area , of an unvaccinated person who had traveled out of the country. New Jersey recently reported a case, as well.

Between Dec. 1 and Jan. 23, there were 23 cases in the U.S., the CDC said. There were 56 cases in all of 2023 and 121 cases in 2022.

Global rise seen in U.S.

After years of declining vaccination rates, researchers from the CDC and the World Health Organization issued a report in November highlighting increases in global measles cases and deaths the previous year. There were 9 million cases and 136,000 deaths, mostly among children, in 2022, signaling rises compared to the previous year.

Europe has seen an exponential increase in recent measles cases, the WHO said .

Vaccination rates have dropped in the U.S., according to a CDC report. It found the U.S. reached its highest level ever for vaccine exemptions in the 2022-23 school year, with about a quarter-million kindergartners at risk of measles.

The CDC said recent measles cases often originate from unvaccinated U.S. residents who travel internationally and transmit the disease to others who aren’t immune.

"The increased number of measles importations seen in recent weeks is reflective of a rise in global measles cases and a growing global threat from the disease," the CDC said Thursday.

How you can get measles

Measles is highly contagious for people who are not vaccinated or immune. Older people tend to be either vaccinated or immune. The virus spreads via droplets usually after a person coughs or sneezes. It lingers long after a person has left a room. Health providers typically wait two hours before they enter where an infected patient has been.

Symptoms appear a week or two after exposure. They can include runny nose, cough and high fever, with a reddish or hyper-pigmented rash that develops first at the hairline before spreading to the neck and downward.

The MMR vaccine is typically administered in two doses beginning after a baby turns 1. The child receives a second dose when they are between 4 and 6. The full regimen provides near-complete immunity.

Eduardo Cuevas covers health and breaking news for USA TODAY.   He can be reached at  [email protected] .

Alarming surge in measles: Europe in crisis and U.S. on alert

Experts say international travel and declining vaccination rates contribute to cases.

Lois M. Collins

Measles outbreaks in Europe has put U.S. health officials on high alert for the infectious illness. Reports say most U.S. cases are linked to foreign travel.

After the World Health Organization reported a 30-fold increase between 2022 and 2023, a measles outbreak in Europe has public health officials worried. And the United States is experiencing its own set of smaller outbreaks in multiple communities.

Kazakhstan, which straddles Europe and Asia, has seen the most cases so far , WHO reported. But the United Kingdom is also experiencing what’s been deemed a “national incident” with 216 confirmed cases and 103 probable cases. And Euronews reported that “more than 30,000 measles cases were reported by 40 of the WHO European region’s 53 member states between January and October last year, compared to 941 cases in 2022.”

Of those, 21,000 people were hospitalized and five people died. The World Health Organization said this week that “urgent measures” are needed to prevent further spread.

According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control’s weekly threats report, the virus stopped spreading during pandemic lockdowns, but cases have increased “steadily” since June 2023.

Per Euronews, “Alongside the U.K., Romania is on red alert. Last December, the country’s health ministry declared a national measles epidemic following a worrying rise in cases and a high number of hospitalizations among infected children.”

The article says three unvaccinated babies and one unvaccinated adult died.

Cases have been reported across Europe, including in France, Austria and Germany.

Most U.S. cases have been linked to foreign travel and the number of cases in 2023 was lower than during most pre-pandemic years, according to The New York Times . But public health officials are worried that things will continue to worsen in the U.S. and abroad.

CNN reported this week that nearly a dozen cases of measles have been reported in Pennsylvania, Virginia and Georgia recently. “International travel, coupled with declining global vaccination rates, is probably behind this spate of cases.”

About measles

Measles is a viral illness that transmits with incredible ease. The virus resides in the nose and throat mucus of someone who is infected and spreads through coughing and sneezing. People then contract it by breathing contaminated air or touching an infected surface and then touching their eyes, nose or mouth. Animals do not spread the disease, per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .

Once someone coughs or sneezes, the measles virus can hang around in the air for up to two hours after an infected person has moved on.

According to the CDC’s measles fact sheet , symptoms appear a week or two after exposure and usually include high fever, cough, runny nose and watery eyes. The tell-tale rash appears three to five days after the first symptoms and a day or two after tiny white spots appear in the mouth.

People who are infected can spread measles from four days before to four days after the rash appears.

Measles can be dangerous, even deadly, especially for the youngest sufferers, so public health experts say that the doctor should be called immediately if someone in the family has been exposed.

The best way to avoid measles is to be vaccinated.

  • Anti-vaccine stereotypes are misleading
  • How many people died of COVID in December worldwide?

That measles is highly contagious is clear in the narrative provided to CNN by Philadelphia Department of Health spokesman James Garrow, detailing an outbreak in his community. He said that someone who’d traveled outside the country got measles, then exposed a parent and child at a children’s hospital. “That exposure then led to a Philadelphia day care outbreak that includes at least five children.”

CNN said Virginia health officials were warning people who traveled recently out of Dulles International Airport on Jan. 3 and Reagan Washington National Airport on Jan. 4 that they could have been exposed to measles.

Curbing the spread

The CDC has said that a very effective vaccination campaign virtually wiped out measles in the United States in 2000. But because the virus still spreads elsewhere, those who are not vaccinated are at risk of contracting measles.

A two-dose vaccination for most confers lifelong immunity.

But the popularity of international travel means that someone who is not vaccinated can travel and get measles, then bring it home where it can spread to others who have not been vaccinated. The number of people who aren’t vaccinated has grown over time in the U.S. in part because of a study — later retracted because it was based on faulty data — that linked the vaccine to risk of autism.

American Academy of Pediatrics spokesperson Dr. Christina Jones told CNN that close to 92% of U.S. children have received the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine by age 2, which is below the federal goal of 95%, the number that would strengthen herd immunity and provide indirect protection to those not vaccinated.

The CDC reported that the share of kindergartners who received their state-mandated vaccines for measles was lower than federal targets last school year. And the number of people seeking exemptions is higher than ever before.

The centers said children need two doses of the vaccine: one at 12 to 15 months of age and another between ages 4 and 6.

Per CNN, “Before the  nation’s measles vaccination program , about 3 million to 4 million people got the virus every year, and about 400 to 500 died.”

People who have symptoms and need to see a doctor or go to the hospital should call ahead so they can be isolated from other patients and not expose them to the virus.

Unvaccinated people who know they’ve been exposed can get the vaccine within three days and reduce the risk of severe complications or illness.

But there’s no specific treatment for measles. The virus has to burn itself out. Care is instead supportive: reducing fever, getting lots of rest and staying hydrated.

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Travellers at the UK passport control border crossing at Gare du Nord train station in Paris.

Restore European Union freedom to the UK’s young people

While EU passports open doors and usher in opportunities, British passports bring only red tape and uncertainty

Sadiq Khan’s call for a youth mobility agreement with EU countries is a welcome return to pro-European good sense and, I hope, a foretaste of what’s to come under a Labour government (“ Sadiq Khan: ‘Free young people from Brexit work and travel ban’ ”).

As someone who has lived in three EU countries over the last 10 years, one of the saddest aspects of Brexit was knowing that future generations would not be able to do what I had done – or would find it much harder and more complicated. While my burgundy passport opened doors and ushered in opportunities, their blue passports bring them only red tape, uncertainty and long hours spent in draughty waiting rooms, waiting for appointments with immigration officials.

If we can’t have a return to EU membership just yet, at least we can restore some of the EU’s freedoms to the UK’s young people. It is through living and working in Europe , and through meeting fellow Europeans, that they will see the foolishness of Brexit and glimpse the opportunities that have been pointlessly denied them. It will be for their generation to learn the mistakes of the recent past and bring us back to the heart of Europe. Ross McQueen Brussels, Belgium

As a self-funded pre-doctoral researcher from the EU currently studying, working and surviving in London, Sadiq Khan’s statement on “freeing young people from Brexit” brings me hope, but also infuriates me profoundly. In September 2022, I relocated from the EU to London to pursue a PhD in English with no funding but fervour and enthusiasm. My life savings went to pay the exorbitant visa fees, health surcharge and tuition fees. As an international student, my applications for funding got rejected several times – the priority is always given to home students, relegating international applicants to secondary consideration.

The working restrictions imposed on international students with a visa are insane (20 hours a week, only fixed-term contracts, no benefits). Despite having an international career in research and teaching, when I moved to London, I found myself trapped in those sectors that according to Khan have been historically filled by “EU nationals”: hospitality, hourly paid roles in education. Those jobs don’t pay bills and are extremely precarious – that’s why local people don’t want them.

Ironically, my PhD project explores alternative narratives to migration crises in journalism, and now I am fortunate enough to say that I am experiencing first hand the realities of my own research, so I don’t need to do any fieldwork.

If the UK seeks favourable agreements with the EU for its youth, it must extend the same opportunities to EU nationals in return. This means reducing the tuition fees at university and opening the doors to jobs that a Briton would take on. Would you, British people, willingly move to the EU to work for lower and precarious wages with no benefits and in undesirable positions? Irene Praga Guerro London WC1

Bigging up Bradford

As a local resident, I was looking forward to reading the recommendations from Minal Patel, chef-patron at Prashad, Bradford ( “Where chefs go to grab a bite”, Observer Food Monthly ). However, all four of the recommendations from Patel turned out to be in Leeds. As a regular diner at Karachi Restaurant on Neal Street in Bradford, I can reassure your readers that the capital of culture in 2025 does have lots of its own excellent cafes and restaurants. Please visit and discover them. John Perry Silsden, Bradford

Measles: a warning

It was pneumococcal meningitis that left our baby profoundly deaf in 1980, but the excellent specialist unit he attended from the age of three to 16 was there because of a rubella epidemic in the 1970s ( “The Observer view on the measles outbreak: it shows why the NHS needs proper funding” ). This resulted in more deaf babies being born, and the need for appropriate education in the London borough of Bromley became a priority. The provision, within a mainstream school, has gone from strength to strength and long may it continue.

With the recent concern over low uptake of the vaccination, I worry and wonder if history will repeat itself and deaf or disabled babies be born to the next generation of unvaccinated women who contract the deceptively mild but potentially damaging (to the foetus) virus during pregnancy. In all the current coverage, dialogue and discussion on measles, I have neither heard nor read a mention of this other possibly alarming aspect of the MMR situation. Jenny Froude Beckenham, Kent

What now for Woodhouse?

I read with great concern the news that the UK would lose its last blast furnace at Port Talbot. One connected aspect of this that does not seem to have been discussed is the proposed opening of a new coal mine, Woodhouse colliery in Cumbria, for coking coal. If there are no blast furnaces in the UK, is the business case for Woodhouse still valid? Matt Hicks Sheffield

Super-rich, super-toxic

Tim Adams’s piece on Dutch philosophy professor Ingrid Robeyns was a breath of fresh air ( “‘No one should have more than €10m’: the author of Limitarianism on why the super-rich need to level down radically” ). The only way to accumulate a lot of money is to take lots of smaller bits of money off a lot of other people.

It’s not “wealth creation” at all, because the real wealth comes from combining the resources of the Earth and leveraging them cleverly together with the different living standards of working people around the globe. Anything else is really just an exercise in shuffling money around and siphoning off a bit as you do it. And that’s the point of currency. It needs to flow. The clue’s in the name. Like water, if it amalgamates into a vast, stagnant pool it can easily become toxic. Similar effects can often be observed in the behaviours of the mega-rich and, as Robeyns says, are “setting the world on fire”. Jeremy Brettingham North Creake, Norfolk

Rachel Cooke writes of her love of Jane Grigson’s book English Food ( “Can’t face yet another menu offering charred hispi? This 50-year-old cookbook will help” ). May I put in a word for Grigson’s Fish Cookery . A random sample from “The Sole”: “It must be confessed that the life history of the sole is not entertaining, delicious though it may taste. Mostly it lies supine on the bed of the sea, dark side up, attracting as little attention as possible. Its name means ‘flat’, like the sole of the foot. The most dramatic episode of its life – to the outside observer – is when the left eye of the perfectly normal fish-shaped lava moves up and over the head to the right side as the sole flattens into its characteristic shape.” Robert Tilleard Tisbury, Salisbury, Wiltshire

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  1. Where can the unvaccinated travel in Europe? Entry rules for 22

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  3. The countries you can travel to without a vaccine

    Where can I travel unvaccinated? There are currently a number of countries that will allow visitors who have not been vaccinated to enter. A few of them are in Europe, and the others are slightly farther afield. We recommend always closely following UK health guidance, including having your Covid vaccine and booster if you are able to.

  4. Can Americans Travel to Europe?

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  6. A comprehensive guide to travel restrictions across Europe

    Unvaccinated travelers coming from a green-list country must show a negative result of a PCR test (of less than 72 hours) or an antigen test (of less than 48 hours) before departure, or a certificate of recovery from COVID-19. Unvaccinated European travelers are subject to these same testing requirements.

  7. EU travel restrictions: Everything US travelers need to know

    Can I travel to Europe with unvaccinated kids? The new rules will not impact children who are too young to be vaccinated. Those under 12 can travel with vaccinated adults to European countries ...

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  10. E.U. recommends travel restrictions for the unvaccinated

    E.U. recommends new restrictions for unvaccinated residents traveling within Europe. By Perry Stein, , Quentin Aries. and. Rick Noack. November 25, 2021 at 9:33 a.m. EST. Police officers check the ...

  11. European Union recommends new travel restrictions for unvaccinated

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    • September 17, 2021 How to Travel to Europe from the U.S. Right Now European countries have again adjusted their policies after the United States was removed from the EU safe travel list—and the result is a wide variety of entry protocols, ranging from outright bans to no changes at all.

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    There are currently 30 destinations in Europe that don't have any Covid-19 restrictions in place: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany,...

  21. UPDATED: Where can I travel in Europe? A list of COVID entry rules for

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  22. All the European countries you can travel to without a test or full

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